Data Protection in Germany

From GDPRhub
Data Protection in Germany
Data Protection Authority: BfDI (Germany) and 16 State DPAs
National Implementation Law (Original): Bundesdatenschutzgesetz (BDSG)
English Translation of National Implementation Law: English Translation
Official Language(s): German
National Legislation Database(s): Link
English Legislation Database(s): Link
National Decision Database(s): Link

Legislation[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

The birthday of data protection law in Germany is 30 September 1970, the date on which the Hessian state parliament[1] passed the Data Protection Act[2]. On a federal level Bundestag and Bundesrat enacted the Bundesdatenschutzgesetz (Federal Data Protection Act).[3] The next step in in data protection law was taken in 1983 by the German Constitutional Court.[4] The Court derived a fundamental right of informational self-determination:

1. In the context of modern data processing, the general right of personality under Article 2.1 in conjunction with Article 1.1 of the Basic Law encompasses the protection of the individual against unlimited collection, storage, use and sharing of personal data. The fundamental right guarantees the authority conferred on the individual to, in principle, decide themselves on the disclosure and use of their personal data.
2. Limitations of this right to “informational self-determination” are only permissible if there is an overriding public interest. They require a statutory basis that must be constitutional itself and comply with the principle of legal clarity under the rule of law. The legislator must furthermore observe the principle of proportionality. It must also put in place organisational and procedural safeguards that counter the risk of violating the general right of personality.
According to the provisions of the Census Law, a census in the form of a total census was to take place in spring 1983. The census was to be carried out door-to-door by civil servants or public administration officials, as a comparison of registers by the authorities was considered too error-prone. In addition to the complete head count, the collection of further information was also intended.

Several constitutional complaints were filed against this federal law. On 12 April 1983, the first hearing was held before the first senate of the Federal Constitutional Court, which on the following day issued a temporary injunction based on applications by the Lüneburg law student Gunther Freiherr von Mirbach and the Hamburg lawyers Maja Stadler-Euler and Gisela Wild, suspending the implementation of the census law until a decision had been made on the constitutional complaints. The Federal Government and all state governments, with the exception of the Senate of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, considered the Census Act and the project to be constitutional.

The Federal Constitutional Court contradicted this: after further oral hearings on 18 and 19 October 1983, it found in its judgment of 15 December 1983 that numerous provisions of the Census Act encroached significantly and without justification on the fundamental rights of the individual. It declared these provisions null and void and the entire Federal Act unconstitutional, since it violated the complainants' right to informational self-determination. The Federal Constitutional Court derived this right from Article 2.1 of the Basic Law (Grundgesetz - GG), the right to free development of personality, and from Article 1.1 of the Basic Law, the inviolability of human dignity.

National constitutional protections[edit | edit source]

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National GDPR implementation law[edit | edit source]

In Germany the GDPR is implemented by the Bundesdatenschutzgesetz (BDSG).

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Age of consent[edit | edit source]

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Freedom of Speech[edit | edit source]

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Employment context[edit | edit source]

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Research[edit | edit source]

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Other relevant national provisions and laws[edit | edit source]

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National ePrivacy Law[edit | edit source]

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Data Protection Authorities[edit | edit source]

BfDI (Federal DPA)[edit | edit source]

The German Federal Data Protection Authority (Der Bundesbeauftragte für den Datenschutz und die Informationsfreiheit) is the national data protection authority for Germany. It is however only in charge of federal government authorities and private telecoms and postal services. Any other private entity and all other authorities in Germany is regulated by the relevant state DPA.

→ Details see BfDI (Germany)

German State DPAs for the private sector[edit | edit source]

The following DPAs are in charge of all controllers (except federal government authorities and telecoms and postal services) in Germany:

Judicial protection[edit | edit source]

Civil Courts[edit | edit source]

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Administrative Courts[edit | edit source]

Appeals against decisions of German DPAs are brought before the district administrative courts (Verwaltungsgericht; e.g. for the Federal DPA in Bonn/North Rhine-Westphalia - the administrative court in Cologne, for the LDI in Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westphalia) - the administrative court in Düsseldorf). In most cases appeal against the courts decision (Berufung) is possible to the Lands corresponding Higher Administrative Court (Oberverwaltungsgericht [OVG], Verwaltungsgerichtshof [VGH] in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse; Berlin and Bandenburg share one OVG). In some cases appeal against the Higher Administrative Court (Revision) is possible to the Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht [BVerwG])- this appeal is also possible in some rare cases if plaintiff and defendant both agree as an appeal to a district court's decision (Sprungrevision).

The German administative courts regularly are described as used to interpreting european law. The European Court of Justice is in high esteem.

Constitutional Court[edit | edit source]

If no more appeal is possible (Rechtswegerschöpfung) constitutional complaints to the corresponding Constitutional Court of the Land (Verfassungsgericht [VerfG], Landesverfassungsgericht [LVerfG], Verfassungsgerichtshof [VerfGH], Staatsgerichtshof [StGH]) or the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht [BVerfG]) is possible.

The Federal Constitutional Court ruled in 1986 (As-long-as-2-decision)[6]

As long as the European Communities, and in particular the case-law of the Court of Justice of the Communities, generally guarantee effective protection of fundamental rights against the sovereignty of the Communities, which is to be regarded as essentially equivalent to the protection of fundamental rights which the Basic Law requires as indispensable, especially since the essential content of fundamental rights is generally guaranteed, the Federal Constitutional Court will no longer exercise its jurisdiction over the applicability of secondary Community law, which is used as the legal basis for conduct by German courts and authorities in the sovereign territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, and will therefore no longer review this law against the standard of fundamental rights of the Basic Law; corresponding submissions under Article 100 Section 1 of the Basic Law are therefore inadmissible.

Added in 2019 (Right-to-be-forgotten-2-decision)[7]

In accordance with the principle of the primacy of Union law, the application of rules which are fully harmonised in Union law is, as a general rule, governed not by the fundamental rights of the Basic Law but solely by the fundamental rights of the Union. This primacy of application is subject, inter alia, to the proviso that the protection of the respective fundamental right by the fundamental rights of the Union that are applied instead is sufficiently effective..

And again added in 2020 (Public-Sector-Purchase-Programme-decision)[8]

The Court of Justice of the European Union exceeds its judicial mandate, as determined by the functions conferred upon it in Article 19(1) second sentence of the Treaty on European Union, where an interpretation of the Treaties is not comprehensible and must thus be considered arbitrary from an objective perspective. If the Court of Justice of the European Union crosses that limit, its decisions are no longer covered by Article 19(1) second sentence of the Treaty on European Union in conjunction with the domestic Act of Approval; at least in relation to Germany, these decisions lack the minimum of democratic legitimation necessary under Article 23(1) second sentence in conjunction with Article 20(1) and (2) and Article 79(3) of the Basic Law.

Since data protection law is fully harmonised in Union law, in most cases brought before German Constitutional Courts the Articles 7 and 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union might be interpreted before the German fundamental right to Informational self-determination (Article 2 Section 1 in conjunction with Article 1 Section 1 of the Basic Law).

Publication of descisions[edit | edit source]

The German DPAs regularly do not publish their decisions in full text.

Courts[edit | edit source]

The higher German courts regularly publish their decisions. If a decision by German court is not published, it can be retrieved by post, De-Mail or EGVP. It is possible that a fee of 12,50 EUR is charged.

All Länder and the Federal Courts provide their own descision databases.

Federal Courts[edit | edit source]
Court English Name Category DE EN FR ES
Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constituional Court BVerfG
Gemeinsamer Senat der obersten Gerichtshöfe des Bundes Joint Senate of the Supreme Courts of the Federation GmS-OGB Part of BGH-Decisions
Bundesgerichtshof Federal Court of Justice BGH
Bundesverwaltungsgericht Federal Administrative Court BVerwG
Bundesarbeitsgericht Federal Labour Court BAG
Bundesfinanzhof Federal Finance Court BFH
Bundessozialgericht Federal Social Court BSG
Bundespatentgericht Federal Patent Court BPatG
Truppendienstgericht Nord Northern Military service court TDG Nord no decision database
Truppendienstgericht Süd Southern Military service court TDG Süd no decision database
Länder Courts[edit | edit source]
Baden-Württemberg[edit | edit source]
Bavaria[edit | edit source]
Berlin[edit | edit source]
Brandenburg[edit | edit source]
Bremen[edit | edit source]
Hesse[edit | edit source]
Hamburg[edit | edit source]
Lower Saxony[edit | edit source]
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern[edit | edit source]
North Rhine-Westphalia[edit | edit source]

The Ministery of Justice of North Rhine-Westphalia provides a central database of court decisions:

NRWs courts are:

Jurisdiction Court
Constitutional Jurisdiction Verfassungs­gerichtshof für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen
(Constitutional Court for North Rhine-Westphalia, VerfGH
Ordinary Jurisdiction Oberlandesgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court, OLG Düsseldorf)
Landgericht Duisburg
(Duisburg Regional Court, LG Duisburg)
Amtsgericht Dinslaken
(Dinslaken District Court, AG Dinslaken)
Amtsgericht Duisburg
(Duisburg District Court, AG Duisburg)
Amtsgericht Hamborn
(Hamborn District Court, AG Hamborn)
Amtsgericht Ruhrort
(Ruhrort District Court, AG Ruhrort)
Amtsgericht Mülheim an der Ruhr
(Mülheim an der Ruhr District Court, AG Mülheim an der Ruhr)
Amtsgericht Oberhausen
(Oberhausen District Court, AG Oberhausen)
Amtsgericht Wesel
(Wesel District Court, AG Wesel)
Landgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Regional Court, LG Düsseldorf)
Amtsgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf District Court, AG Düsseldorf)
Amtsgericht Langenfeld
(Langenfeld District Court, AG Langenfeld)
Amtsgericht Neuss
(Neuss District Court, AG Neuss)
Amtsgericht Ratingen
(Ratingen District Court, AG Ratingen)
Landgericht Kleve
(Cleves Regional Court, LG Kleve)
Amtsgericht Emmerich
(Emmerich District Court, AG Emmerich)
Amtsgericht Kleve
(Cleves District Court, AG Kleve)
Amtsgericht Geldern
(Geldern District Court, AG Geldern)
Amtsgericht Rheinberg
(Rheinberg District Court, AG Rheinberg)
Amtsgericht Moers
(Moers District Court, AG Moers)
Landgericht Krefeld
(Krefeld Regional Court, LG Krefeld)
Amtsgericht Kempen
(Kempen District Court, AG Kempen)
Amtsgericht Krefeld
(Krefeld District Court, AG Krefeld)
Amtsgericht Nettetal
(Nettetal District Court, AG Nettetal)
Landgericht Mönchengladbach
(Mönchengladbach Regional Court, OLG Mönchengladbach)
Amtsgericht Erkelenz
(Erkelenz District Court, AG Erkelenz)
Amtsgericht Grevenbroich
(Grevenbroich District Court, AG Grevenbroich)
Amtsgericht Mönchengladbach
(Mönchengladbach District Court, AG Mönchengladbach)
Amtsgericht Mönchengladbach-Rheydt
(Mönchengladbach-Rheydt District Court, AG Mönchengladbach-Rheydt)
Amtsgericht Viersen
(Viersen District Court, AG Viersen)
Landgericht Wuppertal
(Wuppertal Regional Court, LG Wuppertal)
Amtsgericht Mettmann
(Mettmann District Court, AG Mettmann)
Amtsgericht Remscheid
(Remscheid District Court, AG Remscheid)
Amtsgericht Solingen
(Solingen District Court, AG Solingen)
Amtsgericht Velbert
(Velbert District Court, AG Velbert)
Amtsgericht Wuppertal
(Wuppertal District Court, AG Wuppertal)
Oberlandesgericht Hamm
( Hamm Higher Regional Court, OLG Hamm)
Landgericht Arnsberg
(Arnsberg Regional Court, LG Arnsberg)
Amtsgericht Arnsberg
(Arnsberg District Court, AG Arnsberg)
Amtsgericht Brilon
(Brilon District Court, AG Brilon)
Amtsgericht Marsberg
(Marsberg District Court, AG Marsberg)
Amtsgericht Medebach
(Medebach District Court, AG Medebach)
Amtsgericht Menden (Sauerland)
(Menden (Sauerland) District Court, AG Menden (Sauerland))
Amtsgericht Meschede
(Meschede District Court, AG Meschede)
Amtsgericht Schmallenberg
(Schmallenberg District Court, AG Schmallenberg)
Amtsgericht Soest
(Soest District Court, AG Soest)
Amtsgericht Warstein
(Warstein District Court, AG Warstein)
Amtsgericht Werl
(Werl District Court, AG Werl)
Landgericht Bielefeld
(Bielefeld Regional Court, LG Bielefeld)
Amtsgericht Bielefeld
(Bielefeld District Court, AG Bielefeld)
Amtsgericht Bünde
(Bünde District Court, AG Bünde)
Amtsgericht Gütersloh
(Gütersloh District Court, AG Gütersloh)
Amtsgericht Halle (Westfalen)
(Halle (Westfalen) District Court, AG Halle (Westfalen))
Amtsgericht Herford
(Herford District Court, AG Herford)
Amtsgericht Lübbecke
(Lübbecke District Court, AG Lübbecke)
Amtsgericht Bad Oeynhausen
(Bad Oeynhausen District Court, AG Bad Oeynhausen)
Amtsgericht Rahden
(Rahden District Court, AG Rahden)
Amtsgericht Rheda-Wiedenbrück
(Rheda-Wiedenbrück District Court, AG Rheda-Wiedenbrück)
Landgericht Bochum
(Bochum Regional Court, LG Bochum)
Amtsgericht Bochum
(Bochum District Court, AG Bochum)
Amtsgericht Herne
(Herne District Court, AG Herne)
Amtsgericht Herne-Wanne
(Herne-Wanne District Court, AG Herne-Wanne)
Amtsgericht Recklinghausen
(Recklinghausen District Court, AG Recklinghausen)
Landgericht Detmold
(Detmold Regional Court, LG Detmold)
Amtsgericht Blomberg
(Blomberg District Court, AG Blomberg)
Amtsgericht Detmold
(Detmold District Court, AG Detmold)
Amtsgericht Lemgo
(Lemgo District Court, AG Lemgo)
Landgericht Dortmund
(Dortmund Regional Court, LG Dortmund)
Amtsgericht Castrop-Rauxel
(Castrop-Rauxel District Court, AG Castrop-Rauxel)
Amtsgericht Dortmund
(Dortmund District Court, AG Dortmund)
Amtsgericht Hamm
(Hamm District Court, AG Hamm)
Amtsgericht Kamen
(Kamen District Court, AG Kamen)
Amtsgericht Lünen
(Lünen District Court, AG Lünen)
Amtsgericht Unna
(Unna District Court, AG Unna)
Landgericht Essen
(Essen Regional Court, LG Essen)
Amtsgericht Bottrop
(Bottrop District Court, AG Bottrop)
Amtsgericht Dorsten
(Dorsten District Court, AG Dorsten)
Amtsgericht Essen
(Essen District Court, AG Essen)
Amtsgericht Essen-Borbeck
(Essen-Borbeck District Court, AG Essen-Borbeck)
Amtsgericht Essen-Steele
(Essen-Steele District Court, AG Essen-Steele)
Amtsgericht Gelsenkirchen
(Gelsenkirchen District Court, AG Gelsenkirchen)
Amtsgericht Gladbeck
(Gladbeck District Court, AG Gladbeck)
Amtsgericht Hattingen (Ruhr)
(Hattingen (Ruhr) District Court, AG Hattingen (Ruhr))
Amtsgericht Marl
(Marl District Court, AG Marl)
Landgericht Hagen
(Hagen Regional Court, LG Hagen)
Amtsgericht Hagen
(Hagen District Court, AG Hagen)
Amtsgericht Schwelm
(Schwelm District Court, AG Schwelm)
Amtsgericht Schwerte
(Schwerte District Court, AG Schwerte)
Amtsgericht Wetter (Ruhr)
(Wetter (Ruhr) District Court, AG Wetter (Ruhr))
Amtsgericht Altena
(Altena District Court, AG Altena)
Amtsgericht Iserlohn
(Iserlohn District Court, AG Iserlohn)
Amtsgericht Lüdenscheid
(Lüdenscheid District Court, AG Lüdenscheid)
Amtsgericht Meinerzhagen
(Meinerzhagen District Court, AG Meinerzhagen)
Amtsgericht Plettenberg
(Plettenberg District Court, AG Plettenberg)
Landgericht Münster
(Münster Regional Court, LG Münster)
Amtsgericht Ahaus
(Ahaus District Court, AG Ahaus)
Amtsgericht Ahlen
(Ahlen District Court, AG Ahlen)
Amtsgericht Beckum
(Beckum District Court, AG Beckum)
Amtsgericht Bocholt
(Bocholt District Court, AG Bocholt)
Amtsgericht Borken
(Borken District Court, AG Borken)
Amtsgericht Coesfeld
(Coesfeld District Court, AG Coesfeld)
Amtsgericht Dülmen
(Dülmen District Court, AG Dülmen)
Amtsgericht Gronau
(Gronau District Court, AG Gronau)
Amtsgericht Ibbenbüren
(Ibbenbüren District Court, AG Ibbenbüren)
Amtsgericht Lüdinghausen
(Lüdinghausen District Court, AG Lüdinghausen)
Amtsgericht Münster
(Münster District Court, AG Münster)
Amtsgericht Rheine
(Rheine District Court, AG Rheine)
Amtsgericht Steinfurt
(Steinfurt District Court, AG Steinfurt)
Amtsgericht Tecklenburg
(Tecklenburg District Court, AG Tecklenburg)
Amtsgericht Warendorf
(Warendorf District Court, AG Warendorf)
Landgericht Paderborn
(Paderborn Regional Court, LG Paderborn)
Amtsgericht Brakel
(Brakel District Court, AG Brakel)
Amtsgericht Delbrück
(Delbrück District Court, AG Delbrück)
Amtsgericht Höxter
(Höxter District Court, AG Höxter)
Amtsgericht Lippstadt
(Lippstadt District Court, AG Lippstadt)
Amtsgericht Paderborn
(Paderborn District Court, AG Paderborn)
Amtsgericht Warburg
(Warburg District Court, AG Warburg)
Landgericht Siegen
(Siegen Regional Court, LG Siegen)
Amtsgericht Bad Berleburg
(Bad Berleburg District Court, AG Bad Berleburg)
Amtsgericht Lennestadt
(Lennestadt District Court, AG Lennestadt)
Amtsgericht Olpe
(Olpe District Court, AG Olpe)
Amtsgericht Siegen
(Siegen District Court, AG Siegen)
Oberlandesgericht Köln
(Cologne Higher Regional Court, OLG Köln)
Landgericht Aachen
(Aachen Regional Court, LG Aachen)
Amtsgericht Aachen
(Aachen District Court, AG Aachen)
Amtsgericht Düren
(Düren District Court, AG Düren)
Amtsgericht Eschweiler
(Eschweiler District Court, AG Eschweiler)
Amtsgericht Geilenkirchen
(Geilenkirchen District Court, AG Geilenkirchen)
Amtsgericht Heinsberg
(Heinsberg District Court, AG Heinsberg)
Amtsgericht Jülich
(Jülich District Court, AG Jülich)
Amtsgericht Monschau
(Monschau District Court, AG Monschau)
Amtsgericht Schleiden
(Schleiden District Court, AG Schleiden)
Landgericht Bonn
(Bonn Regional Court, LG Bonn)
Amtsgericht Bonn
(Bonn District Court, AG Bonn)
Amtsgericht Euskirchen
(Euskirchen District Court, AG Euskirchen)
Amtsgericht Königswinter
(Königswinter District Court, AG Königswinter)
Amtsgericht Rheinbach
(Rheinbach District Court, AG Rheinbach)
Amtsgericht Siegburg
(Siegburg District Court, AG Siegburg)
Amtsgericht Waldbröhl
(Waldbröhl District Court, AG Waldbröhl)
Landgericht Köln
(Cologne Regional Court, LG Köln)
Amtsgericht Bergheim
(Bergheim District Court, AG Bergheim)
Amtsgericht Bergisch Gladbach
(Bergisch Gladbach District Court, AG Bergisch Gladbach)
Amtsgericht Brühl
(Brühl District Court, AG Brühl)
Amtsgericht Gummersbach
(Gummersbach District Court, AG Gummersbach)
Amtsgericht Kerpen
(Kerpen District Court, AG Kerpen)
Amtsgericht Köln
(Cologne District Court, AG Köln)
Amtsgericht Leverkusen
(Leverkusen District Court, AG Leverkusen)
Amtsgericht Wermelskirchen
(Wermelskirchen District Court, AG Wermelskirchen)
Amtsgericht Wipperfürth
(Wipperfürth District Court, AG Wipperfürth)
Labour Jurisdiction Landesarbeitsgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Higher Labour Court, LAG Düsseldorf)
Arbeitsgericht Duisburg
(Duisburg Labour Court, AG Duisburg)
Arbeitsgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Labour Court, AG Düsseldorf)
Arbeitsgericht Essen
(Essen Labour Court, AG Essen)
Arbeitsgericht Krefeld
(Krefeld Labour Court, AG Krefeld)
Arbeitsgericht Mönchengladbach
(Mönchengladbach Labour Court, AG Mönchengladbach)
Arbeitsgericht Oberhausen
(Oberhausen Labour Court, AG Oberhausen)
Arbeitsgericht Solingen
(Solingen Labour Court, AG Solingen)
Arbeitsgericht Wesel
(Wesel Labour Court, AG Wesel)
Arbeitsgericht Wuppertal
(Wuppertal Labour Court, AG Wuppertal)
Landesarbeitsgericht Hamm
(Hamm Higher Labour Court, LAG Hamm)
Arbeitsgericht Arnsberg
(Arnsberg Labour Court, AG Arnsberg)
Arbeitsgericht Bielefeld
(Bielefeld Labour Court, AG Bielefeld)
Arbeitsgericht Bocholt
(Bocholt Labour Court, AG Bocholt)
Arbeitsgericht Bochum
(Bochum Labour Court, AG Bochum)
Arbeitsgericht Detmold
(Detmold Labour Court, AG Detmold)
Arbeitsgericht Dortmund
(Dortmund Labour Court, AG Dortmund)
Arbeitsgericht Gelsenkirchen
(Gelsenkirchen Labour Court, AG Gelsenkirchen)
Arbeitsgericht Hagen
(Hagen Labour Court, AG Hagen)
Arbeitsgericht Hamm
(Hamm Labour Court, AG Hamm)
Arbeitsgericht Herford
(Herford Labour Court, AG Herford)
Arbeitsgericht Herne
(Herne Labour Court, AG Herne)
Arbeitsgericht Iserlohn
(Iserlohn Labour Court, AG Iserlohn)
Arbeitsgericht Minden
(Minden Labour Court, AG Minden)
Arbeitsgericht Münster
(Münster Labour Court, AG Münster)
Arbeitsgericht Paderborn
(Paderborn Labour Court, AG Paderborn)
Arbeitsgericht Rheine
(Rheine Labour Court, AG Rheine)
Arbeitsgericht Siegen
(Siegen Labour Court, AG Siegen)
Landesarbeitsgericht Köln
(Cologne Higher Labour Court, LAG Köln)
Arbeitsgericht Aachen
(Aachen Labour Court, AG Aachen)
Arbeitsgericht Bonn
(Bonn Labour Court, AG Bonn)
Arbeitsgericht Köln
(Cologne Labour Court, AG Köln)
Arbeitsgericht Siegburg
(Siegburg Labour Court, AG Siegburg)
Fiscal Jurisdiction Finanzgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Fiscal Court, FG Düsseldorf)
Finanzgericht Köln
(Cologne Fiscal Court, FG Köln)
Finanzgericht Münster
(Münster Fiscal Court, FG Münster)
Social Jurisdiction Landessozialgericht Nordrhein-Westfalen
(North Rhine-Westphalia Higher Social Court, LSG Essen)
Sozialgericht Aachen
(Aachen Social Court, SG Aachen)
Sozialgericht Detmold
(Detmold Social Court, SG Detmold)
Sozialgericht Dortmund
(Dortmund Social Court, SG Dortmund)
Sozialgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Social Court, SG Düsseldorf)
Sozialgericht Duisburg
(Duisburg Social Court, SG Duisburg)
Sozialgericht Gelsenkirchen
(Gelsenkirchen Social Court, SG Gelsenkirchen)
Sozialgericht Köln
(Cologne Social Court, SG Köln)
Sozialgericht Münster
(Münster Social Court, SG Münster)
Administrative Jurisdiction Oberverwaltungsgericht für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen
(Administrative Court of Justice for North Rhine-Westphalia, OVG Münster)
Verwaltungsgericht Aachen
(Aachen Administrative Court, VG Aachen)
Verwaltungsgericht Arnsberg
(Arnsberg Administrative Court, VG Arnsberg)
Verwaltungsgericht Düsseldorf
(Düsseldorf Administrative Court, VG Düsseldorf)
Verwaltungsgericht Gelsenkirchen
(Gelsenkirchen Administrative Court, VG Gelsenkirchen)
Verwaltungsgericht Minden
(Minden Administrative Court, VG Minden)
Verwaltungsgericht Köln
('Cologne Administrative Court, VG Köln)
Verwaltungsgericht Münster
(Münster Administrative Court, VG Münster)
Rhineland-Palatinate[edit | edit source]
Saarland[edit | edit source]
Saxony[edit | edit source]
Saxony-Anhalt[edit | edit source]
Schleswig-Holstein[edit | edit source]
Thuringia[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Hessischer Landtag. Stenographischer Bericht 6/80 p. 4271f 30. September 1970
  2. Datenschutzgesetz [HE 1970]. GVBl. HE 1970 S. 625
  3. Bundesdatenschutzgesetz. BGBl. I 1977 S. 201
  4. Bundesverfassungsgericht. Judgement of the first senate of 15. Dezember 1983 - 1 BvR 209/83, 1 BvR 269/83, 1 BvR 362/83, 1 BvR 420/83, 1 BvR 440/83, 1 BvR 484/83 (in DE) (Abstract in EN) - ECLI:DE:BVerfG:1983:rs19831215.1bvr020983
  5. Translated: Wikipedia contributors. (28. Oktober 2019, 12:54 UTC). Volkszählungsurteil. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1. April 2020, 20:01 UTC from
  6. Bundeverfassungsgericht, Second Chamber Ruling, Case 2 BvR 197/83 (in DE), 22. October 1986.
  7. Bundesverfassungsgericht, First Chamber Ruling, Case 1 BvR 276/17 (in DE), 6 November 2019. ECLI:DE:BVerfG:2019:rs20191106.1bvr027617
  8. Bundesverfassungsgericht, Second Senate Judgment, Case 2 BvR 859/15 (in DE), 5 May 2020. ECLI:DE:BVerfG:2020:rs20200505.2bvr085915