EDPS - 2020-1013

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EDPS - 2020-1013
LogoEDPS.png
Authority: EDPS
Jurisdiction: European Union
Relevant Law: Article 6 GDPR
Article 13 GDPR
Article 5(3) ePrivacy Directive
Regulation 2018/1725
Type: Complaint
Outcome: Upheld
Decided: 05.01.2022
Published:
Fine: None
Parties: n/a
National Case Number/Name: 2020-1013
European Case Law Identifier: n/a
Appeal: Unknown
Original Language(s): English
Original Source: EDPS (in EN)
Initial Contributor: n/a

The European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) issued a reprimand against the European Parliament for illegally transferring data to the US for having unclear cookies banners and therefore placing cookies without valid consent, having a data protection notice that did not comply with its transparency requirements, and failing to answer an access request by the complainants.

English Summary[edit | edit source]

Facts[edit | edit source]

In January 2021, noyb filed a complaint against the European Parliament on behalf of six Members of the European Parliament over an internal coronavirus testing website. The issues raised were: confusing and unclear cookie banners, vague and unclear data protection notices, and the illegal transfer of data to the US.

Holding[edit | edit source]

On data controllership[edit | edit source]

According to the EDPS, the processor may enjoy a considerable degree of autonomy in providing its services and may identify the ‘non-essential’ elements of the processing operation. Furthermore, the processor may advise or propose certain measures in this respect, but it is up to the controller to decide whether to accept such advice or proposals.

The analysis of the EDPS shows that the European Parliament (EP) delegated some aspects on the setting up and functioning of the website to Ecolog. The EDPS considers the EP acts as the sole data controller for the processing in question (i.e. the operation of the Parliament’s dedicated website) whereas Ecolog acts as a processor.

After having assessed the instructions given by the EP to the processor, the EDPS concluded that the EP did not show the necessary diligence required from a data controller and, ultimately, failed to comply with the Regulation on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by the Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies and on the free movement of such data 2018/1725 (hereafter Regulation 2018/1725), in particular with Articles 26(1) and 29(1).

Moreover, the EDPS considered that the EP failed to provide the necessary detailed instructions to Ecolog for the setting up of the website, including the drafting of the data protection notice. The absence of documented instructions is therefore in violation of Article 29(3) Regulation 2018/1725.

Transparency and information requirements[edit | edit source]

The EDPS confirmed that the data protection notice published at the time of the complaint did not reflect the processing done by the EP, since it merely consisted of a copy of the testing center of Zaventem's airport. Moreover, the reference made in the document to Article 6(1)(f) GDPR was wrong since it stems from the same error. The EDPS confirmed that the EP did not meet its transparency requirements.

The EDPS also analysed the updated version of the data protection notice during the procedure and raised several remaining -and even new- inconsistencies and issues. Among other things, the following problems persisted after the data protection notice was updated:

  • a mere reference to Article 15 and 16 Regulation 2018/1725 is misleading as it should apply in its entirety;
  • the reference to the processing of health data is not correct since no such data are processed in the case at hand;
  • the retention period mentioned is not precise enough;
  • the sections of the data protection notices relating to the recipients of the personal data fail to make any reference to the processor;
  • inconsistencies between the different linguistic versions of the data protection notices were still observed: The English and German versions refer to Ecolog and the Laboratory van Poucke as processors under Article 29 Regulation 2018/1725, whereas the French version refers to them as controllers (‘responsables du traitement’). Moreover, the DPO’s contact details on the website refer to Ecolog in all three linguistic versions of the website, when they should be referring to the Parliament

Cookies and transfers of personal data to the US[edit | edit source]

The EDPS confirmed that tracking cookies, such as the Stripe and the Google analytics cookies, are considered personal data, even if the traditional identity parameters of the tracked users are unknown or have been deleted by the tracker after collection.

In the same vein, the EDPS rejected the EP's argument and confirmed that upon installation on a device, a cookie cannot be considered ‘inactive’. Every time a user visited Ecolog’s website, personal data was transferred to Stripe through the Stripe cookie, which contained an identifier.

The EDPS reached the conclusion that a transfer of data was taking place to the US, via the use of Google and Stripe cookies, since Google Analytics is hosted in the US and the data protection notice referred to a Standard Contractual Clause (SCC) for the transfer of data outside of the EU.

However, the Parliament provided no documentation, evidence or other information regarding the contractual, technical or organisational measures in place to ensure an essentially equivalent level of protection to the personal data transferred to the US in the context of the use of cookies on the website.

Cookie banner on the Parliament’s dedicated website[edit | edit source]

The EDPS reminded that:

  • before setting cookies or any other technology falling within the scope of Article 5(3) ePrivacy Directive 2002/58/EC (hereafter ePrivacy Directive), the EU institution must provide the user with adequate information on what is accessed or stored on the user’s terminal equipment, on the purposes of this action and the means for expressing their consent;
  • no action may be performed before the consent is collected. In addition, users must be enabled to withdraw their consent at any time;
  • ‘cookie walls’ are not in line with Regulation 2018/1725, meaning that for consent to be freely given, access to the website’s service and functionalities should not depend on the users’ consent for cookies that are not strictly necessary in the sense described above;
  • in case personal data collected through the cookies are shared with third parties such as analytics partners, the cookie banner should draw the user's attention to it.

The EDPS reached the conclusion that the cookie banners in all three languages were not in line with the definition of consent under Article 3(15) Regulation 2018/1725, nor did they meet the requirements of Article 37 Regulation 2018/1725 and Article 5(3) ePrivacy Directive. The cookie banner further failed to provide transparent information regarding the processing of personal data in relation to the cookies on the website.

Request for access to personal data[edit | edit source]

The Parliament was aware that the complainants’ personal data had been processed through the cookies, which were present on the website for the period between 30 September to 4 November 2020, since transfers of personal data had taken place. Consequently, and especially following the EDPS’ inquiry on the matter, the Parliament should have replied to the complainants’ access to personal data request.

The Parliament should have provided the relevant information even if it was aware that the processing of the personal data in question was unlawful, as the main purpose of the right of access under Article 15 GDPR is precisely to enable data subjects to become aware of the processing and verify the lawfulness thereof, or exercise other data subject rights.

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

The EDPS concludes that the Parliament has infringed the following articles of Regulation 2018/1725:

  1. Articles 26(1) and 29(1) due to its failure to fulfil its responsibilities as controller and use a processor providing sufficient guarantees to implement appropriate technical and organisational measures;
  2. Article 29(3) due to its failure to provide documentation relating to the detailed instructions given to the processor for the setting up and functioning of the website;
  3. Articles 4(1)(a) and 14, 4(2), and 15 due to its failure to respect the principle of transparency, accountability and the data subjects’ right to information because of the inaccurate data protection notice and cookie banner on the dedicated website;
  4. Article 46 and Article 48(2)(b) of the Regulation, due to its reliance on the Standard Contractual Clauses in the absence of a demonstration that data subjects’ personal data transferred to the US were provided an essential equivalent level of protection;
  5. Article 37 read in the light of Article 5(3) of the ePrivacy Directive, due to its failure to protect information (the cookies) transmitted to, stored in, related to, processed by and collected from the users’ terminal equipment;
  6. Articles 17 and 14(4) due to its failure to reply to the data subjects’ request for access to their personal data.

On the basis of the above, the EDPS decides:

  1. to issue a reprimand to the Parliament in accordance with Article 58(2)(b) Regulation 2018/1725 for the above infringements;
  2. to order the Parliament, pursuant to Article 58(2)(b) Regulation 2018/1725:, to update its data protection notices in the dedicated website in order to provide all relevant information relating to the processing of personal data. The Parliament should address this order within one month from the date of the decision.

Comment[edit | edit source]

This decision of the EDPS is interesting on many levels, since it confirms that cookies linked to US providers -even if inactive- are transferring data outside of the EU and should therefore meet the requirement of data protection law on transfers.

It also confirms that the cookies banners should mirror the actual use of cookies on the website and list the recipients receiving the data.

It also shows that the controllers remain responsible for all processing operations on their website and should make sure that they enter into an agreement or give written instructions to the processors regarding the processing operation, as well as demonstrating compliance with this obligation.

Further Resources[edit | edit source]

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English Machine Translation of the Decision[edit | edit source]

The decision below is a machine translation of the English original. Please refer to the English original for more details.


Decision of the European Data Protection Supervisor in complaint case 2020-1013
submitted by Members of the Parliament against the European Parliament
The European Data Protection Supervisor,
Having regard to the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union,
Having regard to Article 58(2)(b) and (e) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725,
Has adopted the following decision:
PART I - Proceedings
On 29 October 2020, the European Data Protection Supervisor (‘the EDPS’) received a
complaint under Article 68 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 (the Regulation)1 jointly signed by
Members of the European Parliament (‘MEPs’)
(the complainants), against the European Parliament (the Parliament), regarding alleged
infringements of Article 15 and Chapter V of the Regulation through one of the Parliament’s
websites. The complaint was registered under case 2020-1013.
Following receipt of the complaint, the EDPS started investigating it pursuant to Article
57(1)(e) of the Regulation. In this context, on 9 December 2020, he contacted the Parliament’s
Data Protection Officer (‘DPO’) inquiring ab out progress in the handling of a complaint
concerning the same subject, which had been previously submitted to the Parliament by the
complainants. The Parliament’s DPO replied on 17 December 2020.
On 20 January 2021, the EDPS followed up on this correspondence in order to bring the
DPO’s attention to some issues relating to the data protection notice(s) published on the
website http://europarl.ecocare.center (the dedicated website), and inquired about the
purpose of a unique identifier (uid) stored on the website together with a cookie.
On 22 January 2021, the EDPS received, under Article 67 of the Regulation, a complementary
complaint to the one registered under case 2020-1013 by the non-profit organisation noyb –
European Center for Digital Rights (‘noyb’). This complaint established the representation
of the complainants by noyb, repeated the main allegations of the original complaint, and
expanded on it with additional information and arguments. On 29 January 2021, MEP 2
joined the complaint, providing a mandate for her representation by noyb. Since
the 29 October 2020 and 22 January 2021 complaints have the same subject matter, they have
been handled under the same case file.
In reply to the EDPS’s communication of 20 January 2021, the Parliament’s DPO service
informed the EDPS on 4 February 2021 that most of the identified issues had been solved
and that the text of the data protection notice had been updated on the website, without,
however, providing further information on the exact changes implemented.
The EDPS continued the examination of the complaint pursuant to Article 57(1)(e) of the
Regulation, and invited the Parliament to comment on the allegations brought forward by
the complainants and their representative, noyb, by letter dated 16 February 2021.
The Parliament replied on 25 March 2021. The EDPS requested on 31 March 2021 the
complainant’s comments on the Parliament’s reply, which he received on 20 May 2021. The
EDPS requested some additional information from the Parliament by letter of 26 May 2021.
The Parliament provided its reply with two letters, on 8 and 17 June 2021, respectively.
On 14 April 2021 noyb filed a request for access to the file under Article 41(2)(b) of the EU
Charter of Fundamental rights. The EDPS replied on 5 May, 20 July and 7 December 2021,
respectively.
PART II - Facts
In order to provide MEPs and the Parliament’s staff with the possibility to be efficiently and
swiftly tested in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Parliament contracted the
private company Ecolog to conduct mass COVID-19 PCR testing within the Parliament’s
premises and run the europarl.ecocare.center website. In order to respect the epidemiological
precautions, testing is conducted following online registration. The dedicated website went
online on 30 September 2020.
The complainants used the software webbkoll from the Danish non-profit organisation
Dataskydd to scan the dedicated website and identify cookies and trackers that the website
used. The complainants became aware of the existence of Google analytics and Stripe cookies
on the dedicated website through the webbkoll report. They used the report produced by
webbkoll as a basis for their allegations as summarised below.
On 27 October 2020, one of the complainants sent an email to the Parliament’s Secretariat
and all MEPs informing them of the webbkoll technical analysis of the website and inquiring
about the justification for the transfers of MEPs’ and staff’s personal data to the US.
In addition, on 29 October 2020, the complainants filed a complaint with the Parliament’s
DPO. The DPO acknowledged receipt of the complaint on the same day. On 13 November
2020, the Parliament’s DPO informed the complainants that ‘new internal technical
verifications on the web page of the test centre confirmed that it is currently not possible to
transfer any data to third countries’. He additionally informed the complainants that ‘further
analysis is ongoing in order to verify the data workflow in the first period of activity of the
centre and determine whether transfers to third parties did actually happen’.
On 18 November 2020, the Parliament’s Secretariat replied to the complainants’ email of 27
October 2020, informing them that its Directorate-General for Personnel (‘DG PERS’) is the
controller for the processing of personal data on the website and that Regulation (EU)
2018/1725 is applicable. The Secretariat further informed that ‘DG PERS has received
assurances from Ecolog and has since verified that Google analytics and Stripe have been
disabled on the registration platform’.
Following receipt of the Secretariat’s email, the complainants sent on 1 December 2020 an
email to the Parliament’s Secretariat and the Parliament’s DPO respectively, inquiring ‘how
long exactly did the data transfers happen via Google Analytics and Stripe cookies’, as well
as ‘what kind of data from MEPs, APAs [Accredited Parliamentary Assistants] and
employees were transferred’.
On 7 December 2020, the complainants received a reply from DG PERS, 2 which explained
that ‘they established that one cookie and several tracks to servers (sic) located in Germany,
Finland and USA were present on the webpage at issue. As [the complainants] referenced in
[their] email of 1 December 2020, the trackers from Google analytics and Stripe were disabled
by Ecolog in the days following [the] complaint. Subsequently, Ecolog confirmed that no
data transfers had taken place in the context of the cookie and trackers at issue’. In the same
email, DG PERS stated that they requested Ecolog to provide them with ‘detailed
explanations’ in order to ensure that ‘no data transfers had occurred before the removal of
the trackers from Google analytics and Stripe’. They further explained that ‘the company
confirmed that the Stripe cookie (for secure payments) in the webpage had never been active,
since registration for testing for EU Staff and Members did not require any form of payment.
Further, the trackers were used only to ensure that the application was called only from the
domain ecolog-international.com (domain of the company)’. DG PERS also informed the
complainants that no personal data of MEPs and the Parliament’s staff, registered for
COVID-19 testing through the website, were transferred outside the EU.
On 16 February 2021, the EDPS informed the Parliament, through his letter inviting its
comments on the complaint, of the fact that the complainants’ request of 27 October 2020
to be informed of the transfers of their personal data and the appropriate safeguards for such
transfers constitutes a request for access to personal data under Article 17 of the Regulation.
He further inquired how the Parliament had handled or planned to handle the request.
By letter of 25 March 2021, the Parliament informed the EDPS that it was in no position to
identify neither the users of the website (or IP addresses of users), who accepted the Google
Analytics cookies on the website, nor the personal data that were sent to Google from the
use of such cookies. In the same letter, however, the Parliament admitted that ‘Ecolog did
not provide the EP services with complete certainty regarding the absence of data transfers
to the US’. 
Allegations of the complainants
1. The Parliament’s website and alleged transfers to the United States (US)
On the basis of the aforementioned webbkoll report, the complainants alleged that the
dedicated website incorporated (at the time of the initial complaint) ‘a third party cookie and
a total of 150 third-party requests’, among which ‘several trackers’, including one that
belonged to a company located in the US.
The complainants claimed that the findings in the webbkoll report were an indication that
the Parliament was transferring personal data relating to MEPs and employees outside the
European Union, in particular to Google and Stripe in the US. In their view, such a transfer
of personal data is contrary to the recent Schrems II judgment of the Court of Justice of the
European Union. 3 Regarding transfers to Google, the complainants put forward that this is
confirmed by the data protection notice on the website,4 which stated, at least until the ‘13
January 2021’,5 that ‘the information regarding [the] usage of this website generated by the
use of Google Analytics is transmitted to and stored on a Google server in the US’.
In light of the findings of the webbkoll report and the information included in the website’s
data protection notice, the complainants contested the information provided by DG PERS.
2. Data protection notice on the Parliament’s website
The complainants alleged that at least until ‘13 January 2021’, visitors to the website were
presented with two different data protection notices:6 one under the ‘data protection’ section
at the bottom of the homepage, 7 and one on the registration page of the website. 8 The
complainants noted that both data protection notices failed to refer to Regulation (EU)
2018/1725. Furthermore, the complainants observed that the notices referred instead to the
GDPR and in particular mention legitimate interest under Article 6(1)(f) GDPR as the legal
basis for the processing. They pointed out that this provision does not have any equivalent
under the Regulation. In the complainants’ view, the above elements constitute violations of
Articles 5, 14 and 15 of the Regulation.
3. Cookie banner on the Parliament’s website
In addition, the complainants pointed out that at the time of the filing of the complaint,
visitors to the website were presented with a different cookie banner depending on the
language setting of the website. In particular, the English version of the banner only
displayed an ‘essential’ tick box, whereas the French and German versions additionally 5
included an ‘external media’ tick box. The German cookie banner also included the option to
‘accept only necessary cookies’, an option absent from the English and French versions.
Clicking the ‘cookie details’ section of the banners would take visitors to the second layer of
the cookie banners, which were again different depending on the language displayed. The
English version only referred to essential cookies and prompted the user to either click on
the ‘accept all’ or the ‘save’ button. The difference between the two buttons was unclear. The
French version of the second layer of cookie banner referred both to essential cookies and
‘external media’. These external media cookies included cookies from Facebook, Google
Maps, Instagram, OpenStreetMap, Twitter, Vimeo and Youtube. The visitor could also choose
between ‘accept all’ or ‘save’. The German version of the second layer of the cookie banner
referred to only one ‘external media’ cookie - Google Maps - in addition to the essential
cookie.
The description of the essential cookie provided in all three banners stated that it ‘saves the
visitors’ preferences selected in the Cookie Box of Borlabs Cookie’. The complainants claimed
that information relating to the essential cookie was not ‘clear, concise and intelligible’,
‘especially when it comes to the banner of the English version, where no preference regarding
cookies can be selected by the users’, which constitutes a violation of Article 14 of the
Regulation.
Furthermore, the complainants claimed that there was no ‘reject all’ option on the first layer
of the cookie banner, which constitutes a violation of Article 14 of the Regulation, as well as
non-compliance with the conditions set out in the Regulation for valid consent.
The complainants additionally alleged that the design of the cookie banners was deceptive,
since they prompted the website’s visitors to ‘accept all’ cookies, by highlighting the
corresponding button. They also added that there was no information about the withdrawal
of consent for the use of cookies on the website.
4. Access to personal data request
Finally, the complainants requested that their right of access to their personal data under
Article 17 of the Regulation be satisfied. In particular, they requested to be ‘informed of
which of their data exactly were transferred abroad’ and to be ‘made aware of what
appropriate safeguards and additional measures are put in place for the transfer’ outside of
the EU.
Comments of the data controller
1. On Google Analytics, the Stripe cookie, any additional trackers on the website and
transfers of personal data to the US
Due to the fact that the website was set up by Ecolog as a ‘sub-site’ of Ecolog’s main website,
the latter offering testing services to clients other than the Parliament for which payment is
required, the Stripe cookie remained available on the Parliament’s dedicated website for the
period between 30 September to 2 November 2020, when it was removed by Ecolog under the
Parliament’s instructions. However, ‘Stripe cookies are used only when [a] person is
redirected to do online payment via this service. As online payment was not an option in 6
[the] European Parliament app it was never active and nothing is transferred (sic)’. According
to the Parliament, this explains the contradiction between the findings of the webbkoll report
submitted by the complainants and the Parliament’s explanation regarding the said cookie
not being active. In fact, the Parliament’s website, set up by Ecolog, ‘contained some parts of
code copied from another webpage that the company built for a test centre in the Brussels
International Airport (Zaventem). The parts copied included the code for a cookie from Stripe
that was used for online payment for users in Zaventem. The page for European Parliament
tests was not directing any user to the online payments module as no payment is required
for testing in the European Parliament. For this reason, the analysis shows the presence of
code for Stripe but it was not actually used’.
The Parliament claimed that ‘unfortunately, and without any instruction given by the
European Parliament in this regard, Google cookies were present and active on the website
from September 30th to November 4th, 2020’. According to Ecolog’s information to the
Parliament, these cookies were used in order to minimise the risk of spoofing and for website
optimisation purposes. Following the Parliament’s instructions in early November, all
cookies except an ‘internal’ one used by the website were removed. The internal cookie was
removed in February 2021.
According to Google’s terms of use, Google Analytics are designed to process ‘online
identifiers, including cookie identifiers, internet protocol addresses and device identifiers’ as
well as ‘client identifiers’. The Parliament explained that users connecting through the
Parliament’s network use ‘an anonymised IP address’ and that ‘possible transfers of
information could occur only in cases where users connected to the webpage from private
connections outside the network of the EP, accepted the cookies from the website and did
not have cookies disabled in their browsers’.
The Parliament further admitted that Ecolog’s explanation on the absence of personal data
transfers to the US did not provide ‘complete certainty’ that no such transfers had taken
place; ‘on the contrary, it is reasonable to state that, only during the mentioned period of
October 2020, a transfer of data was possible’. However, the Parliament pointed out that the
risk for data subjects concerned was low, taking into account the types of personal data
processed and the amount of users affected ‘(only end-users connecting to the web from
private connections)’.
2. On the data protection notice on the Parliament’s website and the cookie banner
According to the controller, the website featured two different data protection notices, at the
time of the complaint. The one at the main entry page was copied from the Zaventem page
and the one on the registration page was slightly different, but the Parliament acknowledged
that neither was ‘appropriate’, as they ‘contained wrong and misleading information’.
Following receipt of the complaint, the Parliament focused on ‘removing the cookies’,
‘publishing the right Privacy Statement’ and ‘removing misleading information from the
cookies preferences box’. The Parliament provided Ecolog with the updated English version
of the data protection notice on 3 February 2021. The French and German versions were
published on the relevant website on 24 February 2021. The Parliament provided the EDPS 7
with links to the updated versions of the data protection notices, as well as screenshots of
the online registration form.
3. On the request of access to personal data
Following the EDPS’ request for comments, the Parliament claimed that it was in no position
to identify neither the users (or IP addresses of users), who accepted the Google Analytics
cookies on the website, nor the personal data that were sent to Google because of the use of
such cookies. However, its assessment suggested that ‘the volume of possibly impacted data
subjects remains limited’, ‘having in mind the fact that only end-users connecting to the web
from private connections and accepting the presented cookies policy might be subject to data
transfers’. The Parliament believes that this claim is further supported by ‘the consideration
that the European Parliament equipped Parliament members and staff members with devices
allowing them to use the EP internal secured working platform for making appointments’.
PART III - Legal analysis
1. Data controllership
In the context of the investigation, the EDPS requested the Parliament to provide information
revealing its contractual relationship with Ecolog, as well as Ecolog’s discretion, and limits
thereof, in the setting up and functioning of the Parliament’s dedicated website.
Within this framework, the Parliament provided its contract with Ecolog and email
correspondence between them that took place during the period between 25 January and 19
March 2021 (relevant correspondence).
Article 3(8) of the Regulation defines the controller as the entity that determines 9 the
purposes and the means10 of the processing. In identifying a controller, questions such as
‘why the processing is taking place’, ‘who initiated the processing’ and ‘who benefits from
the processing’, as well as ‘how the processing is taking place’ are essential. Whereas it is
the controller who determines the ‘essential’ elements of the means of the processing, such
as the type(s) of data to be processed, the period for which they would be retained, from
which data subjects the data would be collected, etc., more practical aspects of the
processing, such as the software or the technical security measures, can be determined by
the data processor, to the extent that such operation is being undertaken under the general
instructions of the data controller.11 In fact, the processor may enjoy a considerable degree
of autonomy in providing its services and may identify the ‘non-essential’ elements of the
processing operation.12 The processor may advise or propose certain measures in this respect,
but it is up to the controller to decide whether to accept such advice or proposal, after having 8
been fully informed of the reasons for the measures, what the measures are and how they
would be implemented.13
The contract concluded on the Parliament’s own initiative with Ecolog sets out the conditions
under which Ecolog should establish a provisional COVID-19 testing centre on the premises
of the Parliament in Brussels through an integrated solution and provide its services
accordingly. Testing services based on the contract were to be made available to MEPs and
other staff of the Parliament. The contract states that the controller of the processing
operation is the Brussels Medical Service of the Parliament. The contract further lists the
types of personal data to be processed, the operations that the processing comprises as well
as the purpose of the processing, which is the recording and classification of any information
relating to the performance of the COVID-19 tests. Whereas the contractual arrangements
reveal the Parliament’s intention to be the controller for the processing operations that fall
within the contract framework, the EDPS still needed to assess the level of instructions the
Parliament gave to Ecolog in this regard, in order to determine whether the Parliament is
indeed the sole controller and exclude a case of joint controllership.
It follows from the relevant correspondence between Ecolog and the Parliament that the
latter delegated the setting up and functioning of the website to Ecolog. The correspondence
reveals that before setting up the website, Ecolog had consulted the Parliament about the
‘complete website and the privacy statement (including the use of cookies)’, which were
approved by the Parliament. Therefore, Ecolog was ‘under the assumption that the technical
set-up’ was ‘in line with [the Parliament’s] regulations’. Furthermore, ‘in the beginning of
[their] cooperation [with the Parliament]’, Ecolog made the Parliament ‘aware that the
privacy statement should have come from the Parliament and not from [them], as [they are]
only the data processor and not the data controller according to the contract’. Ecolog drafted
the data protection notice ‘only as courtesy and in order to [provide] support on short notice’.
Based on the above, the EDPS considers the Parliament as the sole data controller for the
processing in question, i.e. the operation of the Parliament’s dedicated website, whereas
Ecolog acts as a processor.
According to Article 26(1) of the Regulation, ‘(...) the controller shall implement appropriate
technical and organisational measures to ensure and to be able to demonstrate that
processing is performed in accordance with this Regulation’. Article 26(2) of the Regulation
provides that ‘where proportionate in relation to processing activities, the measures referred
to in paragraph 1 shall include the implementation of appropriate data protection policies by
the controller’.
According to Article 29(1) of the Regulation, ‘the controller shall use only processors
providing sufficient guarantees to implement appropriate technical and organisational
measures’ in order to ensure respect of the requirements of the Regulation and the rights of
the data subject. The controller is therefore responsible for assessing the guarantees provided
by the processor and should be able to demonstrate that it has taken into account all
requirements of the Regulation. In practice, the processor should demonstrate to the
satisfaction of the controller such guarantees, which implies an exchange of relevant documentation (e.g. data protection notice, information security policy etc.). Assessing the
processor’s guarantees is done on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the nature,
the scope and the purposes of the processing, as well as the risks to the rights and freedoms
of the data subjects. In any case, one of the elements that the controller should also evaluate
is the processor’s expert knowledge.14
Article 29(3) of the Regulation requires that ‘any processing by a processor shall be governed
by a contract or other legal act under Union or Member State law’ between the controller
and the processor. In accordance with Article 29(9) of the Regulation, such a contract or legal
act must be in writing, and should contain all elements listed under Article 29(3) of the
Regulation, as well as detailed instructions on how these elements must be implemented.15
Such instructions can outline, among others, permissible or unacceptable handling of
personal data, and they must be documented. Whereas it is recommended that such
instructions are annexed to the contract or legal act, instructions in other forms (e.g. by
email) are also acceptable, provided that it is possible to keep record of them.16
Both the controller and the processor are responsible for ensuring that a contract or legal
act, in line with Article 29(3) of the Regulation, is in place.
The Parliament delegated the setting up and functioning of the website to Ecolog. 17 Ecolog
informed the Parliament that the use of the Google Analytics cookies aimed to optimise the
website and minimise the risk of spoofing. Determining the use of cookies for the
Parliament’s dedicated website is an action that Ecolog carried out while operating under
the Parliament’s general instructions (i.e. the setting up and functioning of the website) in
this regard.
Ecolog’s use of the Stripe cookies seems to be the result of human error while setting up the
Parliament’s dedicated website. When creating the Parliament’s website, Ecolog copied the
code of another website that it had previously built for a different client, which required
online payment carried out through the Stripe cookies.
By assigning Ecolog to set up and ensure the functioning of the dedicated website, as well as
to draft the data protection notice, the Parliamen t, as the controller for the processing
operation in question, seems to have chosen to give operational independence and discretion
to Ecolog, the processor. The Parliament did so while being aware that such tasks are not
within Ecolog’s primary field of expertise and knowledge (this being rather the provision of
COVID-19 testing services) and without having any sufficient guarantees by Ecolog that it
could implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to carry out these tasks
in line with the Regulation. The Parliament’s claim that the Google Analytics cookies were
used on the website ‘without any instruction given by the European Parliament in this
regard’ does not change the fact that the primary duty of compliance lies with the 10
controller.18 Furthermore, the Parliament approved the work done by Ecolog in this context,
before the dedicated website went public. In doing so, the Parliament did not show the
necessary diligence required from a data controller and, ultimately, failed to comply with the
Regulation, in particular with Articles 26(1) and 29(1) of the Regulation.
Finally, based on the evidence submitted to him, the EDPS considers that the Parliament
failed to provide the necessary detailed instructions to Ecolog for the setting up of the
website, including the drafting of the data protection notice. Since the Regulation establishes
a clear obligation, where no other relevant legal act is in force, for the written contract to
stipulate that the personal data must be processed only on documented instructions from
the controller the absence thereof is an infringement of Article 29(3) of the Regulation.
2. Transparency and information requirements
Article 4(1)(a) of the Regulation establishes the principles of lawfulness, fairness and
transparency that apply to all personal data processing operations. The principle of
transparency establishes an obligation for the controller to take all appropriate measures in
order to keep the data subjects informed about the processing of their personal data.
Transparency may refer to the information givento data subjects before the processing starts
or to the information that should be easily accessible to them during the processing.
The accountability principle, established in Article 4(2) of the Regulation, requires controllers
to actively and continuously implement measures to promote and safeguard data protection
in their processing activities. 19 Controllers shall ensure, verify and be able to actively
demonstrate compliance with the provisions of the Regulation, both to the data subjects and
to their supervisory data protection authority, at any time.
Article 14 of the Regulation imposes the obligation on the controller to provide data subjects
with information regarding the processing of their personal data in a transparent and easily
accessible form. This information should be presented in a clear and plain language before
the processing starts. The Regulation’s transparency and information requirements can be
met through a specific data protection notice. The information included in the data
protection notice should be in line with Articles 15 and, where applicable, 16 of the
Regulation.
The Parliament updated all three linguistic versions of the data protection notices on the
main page and the registration page of the website in February 2021. As submitted by the
complainants and the Parliament, as well as verified by the EDPS’s assessment, the previous
versions of these notices did not reflect the processing done by the Parliament, since they
were data protection notices copied from the testing center of Zaventem’s airport and,
consequently, did not meet the requirements of transparency of the Regulation. The mention
of the legal base for processing as being Article 6(1)(f) GDPR, stems from the above error
consisting in carrying over a data protection notice conceived for a different situation. 11
Based on the above, the EDPS considers that until February 2021, by failing to provide
accurate data protection notices on the website, the Parliament contravened its obligations
under Articles 4(1)(a) and 14 (principle of transparency), Article 4(2) (accountability
principle), and Article 15 (data subject’s right to information) of the Regulation.
Whereas the updated versions of the notices are indeed improved compared to the previous
ones, the EDPS would like to highlight that further changes are still required in order to meet
the transparency and information requirements of the Regulation.
In particular, the data protection notices state that ‘Articles 15 and 16 of [the] Regulation
(...) apply to the processing of personal data carried out by the European Parliament’. This
statement is misleading, as the Regulation applies in its entirety; Articles 15 and 16 define
which information should be provided to data subjects in the context of the processing of
their personal data, through a data protection notice. In addition, Article 16 of the Regulation
only applies in cases where personal data have not been obtained from the data subject,
which does not seem to be the case for the processing at hand.
Furthermore, the list of personal data processed contains reference to the ‘symptoms’ and
‘results of COVID-19 test’. Such data are data concerning health within the meaning of
Article 3(19) of the Regulation, revealing information about the health status of a data
subject. Such a processing should be reflected under the section on the legal grounds for the
processing. Based on the information received (screenshot of the online registration form),
as well as the EDPS’ assessment, the Parliament does not process data concerning health in
the context of the functioning of the website. The actual processing should be reflected in
the data protection notice, which should be further updated accordingly. In case the
Parliament’s practice has changed in the meantime and processing of data concerning health
does indeed take place, the Parliament should additionally include a reference to Article 10
and the relevant legal ground(s) for such processing.
The data protection notices do not explicitly mention the duration of the data retention
period, but state that the personal data ‘will be kept by the [processor] and the controller
until the end of the provision of services relating to processing, as stated in the contract’.
They also mention that ‘data related to the test result will be stored in [the] medical file in
accordance with the retention period applicable to those files’.
In accordance with Article 15(2)(a) of the Regulation, the period for which the personal data
will be stored or, in case this is not possible, the criteria used to determine that period, should
be mentioned in the data protection notice. For transparency purposes and for easy access
to this information, the data protection notices on the dedicated website should be updated
to reflect the already determined retention period of the medical files, in which data relating
to the test results are stored. For the same reasons, the Parliament should define how long
the processor should keep the data or at least explain the factors that are taken into account
to determine this retention period. In doing so, it should take into account the principle of
storage limitation of Article 4(1)(e) of the Regulation, according to which it must be ensured
that the period for which personal data are stored is limited to what is necessary for the
purpose of the processing. To this end, the data controller should establish time limits for 12
erasure or for periodic review. 20 In this context, it is worth highlighting that storing data
‘until the end of the provision of services’, based on a contract, is not in line with the principle
of storage limitation, because there is no link between the storage of the data and the
provision of the services, which is undetermined time-wise.
The sections of the data protection notices relating to the recipients of the personal data fail
to make any reference to the processor. According to Article 3(13) of the Regulation,
recipients are any natural or legal person, public authority, agency or another body, to which
personal data are disclosed. Recipients can either be distinct from the controller or processor
or belong to the controller or processor, such as an employee or another division within the
same company or authority. Since, according to the data protection notices, the processors
are consulting, transmitting and storing personal data, the Parliament should list the
processors under the recipients.21
The EDPS observes a remaining inconsistency between the different linguistic versions of the
data protection notices. The English and German versions refer to Ecolog and the Laboratory
van Poucke as processors under Article 29 of the Regulation, whereas the French version
refers to them as controllers (‘responsables du traitement’). Finally, the DPO’s contact details
on the website refer to Ecolog, in all three linguistic versions of the website, when they should
be referring to the Parliament.22
Based on the above, the EDPS considers that, as at the date of the present decision, the
Parliament remains not fully compliant with Articles 4(1)(a) and 14 (principle of
transparency), Article 4(2) (accountability principle), and Article 15 (data subject’s right to
information) of the Regulation.
3. Cookies and transfers of personal data to the US
Cookies are pieces of text generated by the web services that the user has visited. Web
services store these text files on the devices where the web browsers are installed to enable
the exchange of information within their own web service or with others using those cookies.
Cookies are used, among others, to enable user authentication during sessions and to
contribute to web service improvement, by recording browsing behaviour.23
Article 3(1) of the Regulation defines personal data as any information relating to an
identified or identifiable natural person. In this context, identifiable natural person refers to
a person who can be identified, directly or indirectly, by reference, among others, to an
identifier, such as name, identification number, or an online identifier. According to Recital
18 of the Regulation, natural persons may be associated with online identifiers provided by
their devices, applications and protocols, such as internet protocol addresses (IP addresses),
cookie identifiers or other identifiers. This information can lead to the identification of the natural persons, in particular when combined with unique identifiers and other information
received by the servers. Any processing of personal data done by EU institutions, bodies and
agencies (EUIs), including through cookies, is covered by the Regulation.24
Tracking cookies, such as the Stripe and the Google analytics cookies, are considered
personal data, even if the traditional identity parameters of the tracked users are unknown
or have been deleted by the tracker after collection. 25 All records containing identifiers that
can be used to single out users, are considered as personal data under the Regulation and
must be treated and protected as such.26
Upon installation on the device, a cookie cannot be considered ‘inactive’. Every time a user
visited Ecolog’s website, personal data was transferred to Stripe through the Stripe cookie,
which contained an identifier. Neither the Parliament nor Ecolog have argued that there
were any technical measures in place to prevent such transfers. Whether Stripe further
processed the data transferred through the cookie is not relevant.
Google Analytics cookies, which the Parliament acknowledged were present on the website,
are designed to process ‘online identifiers, including cookie identifiers, internet protocol
addresses and device identifiers’ as well as ‘client identifiers’, according to the controller.
Therefore, the EDPS considers that personal data of visitors to the Parliament’s dedicated
website were processed through the abovementioned trackers even if this only happened
where users visited the website through a network other than the Parliament’s. For the
period between 30 September and 4 November 2020, during which the trackers remained on
the website, personal data processed through them were transferred to the US, where both
Stripe and Google LLC are located. The conclusion that transfers to the US took place is
reinforced by the circumstance highlighted by the complainants, according to which, ‘all
data collected through Google Analytics is hosted (i.e. stored and further processed) in the
USA’.27 Furthermore, the first version of the Parliament’s data protection notice on the
dedicated website referred to the use of Standard Contractual Clauses (SCCs) for the
transfers of data outside of the EU, which is what Google refers to in its data protection
notice in order to inform of transfers of data from the EU/EEA to non-EU/EEA countries.
The EUIs must remain in control and take informed decisions when selecting processors and
allowing transfers of personal data outside the EEA. 28 The EDPS recalls that absent an
adequacy decision for transfers to, among other destinations, the US, controllers and
processors may transfer personal data to a third country only if appropriate safeguards are
provided, and on condition that enforceable data subject rights and effective legal remedies 14
for data subjects are available29. Such safeguards may be provided in Standard Contractual
Clauses (SCCs) or another transfer tool. The transfer tool relied on must ensure that data
subjects, whose personal data are transferred to a third country pursuant to that transfer
tool, are afforded a level of protection in that third country that is essentially equivalent to
that guaranteed within the EU by EU data protection law, read in the light of the Charter 30.
However, the use of SCCs or another transfer tool (e.g. ad hoc contractual clauses) does not
substitute the individual case-by-case assessment that an EUI as a controller must carry out,
in accordance with the Schrems II judgement, to determine whether in the context of the
specific transfer, the third country of destination affords the transferred data an essentially
equivalent level of protection to that in the EU. The EUI, where appropriate in collaboration
with the data importer in the third country, must carry out this assessment of the
effectiveness of the proposed safeguards before any transfer is made or a suspended transfer
is resumed.
Where the essentially equivalent level of protection for the transferred data is not effectively
ensured, because the law or practice of the third country impinges on the effectiveness of
the appropriate safeguards contained in the used SCCs for transfers or another transfer tool,
the EUI must implement contractual, technical and organisational measures to effectively
supplement the safeguards in the transfer tool, where necessary together with the data
importer31.
In the Schrems II judgement, the Court of Justice found that the level of protection of
personal data in the US was problematic in view of the lack of proportionality caused by
mass surveillance programmes based on Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
Act and Executive Order 12333 read in conjunction with Presidential Policy Directive 2832 and
the lack of effective remedies in the US essentially equivalent to those required by Article 47
of the Charter.33 Following this, the EDPS is of the view that transfers of personal data to the
US can only take place if they are framed by effective supplementary measures in order to
ensure an essentially equivalent level of protection for the personal data transferred.
However, the Parliament provided no documentation, evidence or other information
regarding the contractual, technical or organisational measures in place to ensure an
essentially equivalent level of protection to the personal data transferred to the US in the
context of the use of cookies on the website. The EDPS therefore considers that the
Parliament failed to meet the requirements of Article 46 and Article 48(2)(b) of the Regulation
for the period between 30 September and 4 November 2020, during which the cookies in
question were present on the dedicated website 15
4. Cookie banner on the Parliament’s dedicated website
In line with Articles 26(1) and 37 of the Regulation, the controller must implement
appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure the protection of information
transmitted to, stored in, related to, processed by and collected from the user’s terminal
equipment when accessing the EUI’s publicly available website, in accordance with Article
5(3) of Directive 2002/58/EC (ePrivacy Directive). 34 The controller should be able to
demonstrate that the processing is performed in accordance with the Regulation.
According to Article 5(3) of the ePrivacy Directive, the use of cookies ‘is only allowed on
condition that the subscriber or user concerned has given his or her consent, having been
provided with clear and comprehensive information, in accordance with Directive 95/46/EC,35
inter alia, about the purposes of the processing’. Article 5(3) provides for two exceptions to
this rule; when the cookie is used ‘for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission of a
communication over an electronic communications network’, or when the cookie is ‘strictly
necessary in order for the provider of an information society service explicitly requested by
the subscriber or user to provide the service ’. Article 5(3) applies to any information stored
in such terminal equipment, regardless of whether or not it is personal data.36
Therefore, before setting cookies or any other technology falling within the scope of Article
5(3) of the ePrivacy Directive, the EUI must provide the user with adequate information on
what is accessed or stored on the user’s terminal equipment, on the purposes of this action
and the means for expressing their consent. No action may be performed before the consent
is collected. In addition, users must be enabled to withdraw their consent at any time. 37
A cookie may only be considered strictly necessary if the service as such would not function
without it. The choice of a certain implementation technique that relies on cookies is not
sufficient to justify strict necessity if the EUI has the choice of a different implementation
that would work without cookies.38 Generally, the EUIs’ web services should be able to work
without cookies requiring consent.39
Tracking cookies from social plug-ins, third-party advertising and analytics clearly require
the data subject’s consent. Even first-party analytics, which ‘are often considered as a
“strictly necessary” tool for web service oper ators, are not strictly necessary to provide a
functionality explicitly requested by the user and are consequently, in principle, subject to
the requirement of consent.
Based on the aforementioned, the Parliament’s cookie banner text should refer to the types
of information accessed or stored through the cookies as well as the purposes for such access
or storage, and the information conveyed through the banner should be identical in all
linguistic versions. Finally, it should provide users the option to consent or not to the
processing of non-essential cookies. In this regard, the banners should include an opt-in
button allowing users to accept cookies, making it clear that by clicking on the button users
agree to the deployment of cookies. Such button should not be preselected; users must not
need to intervene in order to prevent agreement with the processing.41 So called ‘cookie
walls’ are not in line with the Regulation, meaning that for consent to be freely given, access
to the website’s service and functionalities should not depend on the users’ consent for
cookies that are not strictly necessary in the sense described above. Finally, in case personal
data collected through the cookies are shared with third parties, such as analytics partners,
the cookie banner should draw the users’ attention to it.
The complainants’ allegations regarding the cookie banner, as presented under number 3 of
the ‘Allegations of the complainants’ section of the present decision, were verified by the
EDPS. Indeed, from the publication of the dedicated website to at least February 2021, the
Parliament’s cookie banners differed depending on the linguistic version. With regard to the
complainants’ claims under points 69 (10) to (14) of the complaint, the EDPS has reached the
conclusion that the cookie banners in all three languages were not in line with the definition
of consent under Article 3(15) of the Regulation nor did they meet the requirements of Article
37 of the Regulation and Article 5(3) of the ePrivacy Directive, as described above. The cookie
banner further failed to provide transparent information regarding the processing of personal
data in relation to the cookies on the website, which constitutes the Parliament’s
infringement of Article 14(1) of the Regulation, as elaborated in section 2 of the legal analysis
of the present decision.
5. Request for access to personal data
The EDPS considers the complainants’ request to be informed of which data were transferred
through Google Analytics and Stripe to the US, as well as the appropriate safeguards for such
transfers, as a request for access to personal data under Article 17 of the Regulation.
Article 17(1) of the Regulation provides the right of data subjects to obtain from the controller
confirmation as to whether or not personal data concerning them are being processed and,
if answered in the affirmative, to access these personal data (...). In accordance with Article
14(3) of the Regulation, the controller must reply to a request for access without undue delay
and in any event within one month of receipt of the request. Article 14(4) of the Regulation
provides that in case the controller does not take action on the request of the data subject,
the data subject must be informed without undue delay, and, at the latest, within one month
of receipt of the request of the reasons for not taking action, as well as on the possibility for
lodging a complaint with the EDPS and seeking judicial remedy.
The complainants contacted the Parliament and its DPO late October 2020, inquiring about
the justification for transfers of MEPs’ and staff’s personal data to the US. The Parliament replied on 7 December 2020, explaining that they had ‘established that one cookie and several
tracks to servers (sic) located in Germany, Finland and USA were present on the webpage at
issue. (...) [T]he trackers from Google analytics and Stripe were disabled by Ecolog in the
days following [the] complaint. Subsequently, Ecolog confirmed that no data transfers had
taken place in the context of the cookie and trackers at issue’.
On 16 February 2021, the EDPS informed the Parliament, through his letter inviting its
comments on the complaint, of the fact that the complainants’ request to be informed of the
transfers of their personal data and the appropriate safeguards for such transfers constitutes
a request for access to personal data under Article 17 of the Regulation. He further inquired
how the Parliament had handled or planned to handle the request. By letter of 25 March
2021, the Parliament informed the EDPS that it was in no position to identify neither the
users (or IP addresses of users), who accepted the Google Analytics cookies on the website,
nor the personal data that were sent to Google from the use of such cookies. The Parliament
did not make any reference to the Stripe cookie. In the same letter, however, the Parliament
admitted that Ecolog’s explanation on the absence of personal data transfers to the US
through cookies did not provide ‘complete certainty’ that no such transfers had taken place;
‘on the contrary, it is reasonable to state that, only during the mentioned period of October
2020, a transfer of data was possible’.
It therefore becomes apparent that, at least in March 2021, the Parliament was aware that
the complainants’ personal data had been processed through the cookies, which were present
on the website for the period between 30 September to 4 November 2020, since transfers of
personal data had taken place. Consequently, and especially following the EDPS’ inquiry on
the matter, the Parliament should have replied to the complainants’ access to personal data
request.
In particular, in line with Article 17(1) of the Regulation, the Parliament should have provided
the complainants with confirmation as to the fact that their personal data had been
processed in the context of the use of third party cookies on the Parliament’s dedicated
website. Had it subsequently demonstrated the impossibility to identify the data subjects,
the Parliament should have informed them accordingly, in line with Article 14(4) of the
Regulation.
The Parliament should have provided the relevant information even if it was aware that the
processing of the personal data in question was unlawful, as the main purpose of the right
of access under Article 17 is precisely to enable data subjects to become aware of the
processing and verify the lawfulness thereof, or exercise other data subject rights.42
Therefore, the EDPS considers that the Parliament failed to meet its obligations under
Articles 17 and 14(4) of the Regulation.
18
6. Use of corrective power under Article 58(2)(i) and 66 of the Regulation
The complainants request that the EDPS make use of his corrective power under Article
58(2)(i) of the Regulation. This provision states that the EDPS has the power to issue an
administrative fine pursuant to Article 66 in case an EU institution fails to comply with one
of the corrective measures of Article 58(2)(d) to (h) and (j) of the Regulation. The conditions
of the Regulation for the imposition on an administrative fine are not met because the EDPS
is not making use of those types of corrective measures. Therefore, the EDPS is not imposing
an administrative fine to the Parliament.
PART IV- Conclusion
In light of the above, the EDPS concludes that the Parliament has infringed the following
Articles of the Regulation:
a. Articles 26(1) and 29(1) due to its failure to fulfil its responsibilities as controller and
use a processor providing sufficient guarantees to implement appropriate technical
and organisational measures;
b. Article 29(3) due to its failure to provide documentation relating to the detailed
instructions given to the processor for the setting up and functioning of the website;
c. Articles 4(1)(a) and 14, 4(2), and 15 due to its failure to respect the principle of
transparency, accountability and the data subjects’ right to information because of
the inaccurate data protection notice and cookie banner on the dedicated website;
d. Article 46 and Article 48(2)(b) of the Regulation, due to its reliance on the Standard
Contractual Clauses in the absence of a demonstration that data subjects’ personal
data transferred to the US were provided an essential equivalent level of protection;
e. Article 37 read in the light of Article 5(3) of the ePrivacy Directive, due to its failure
to protect information (the cookies) transmitted to, stored in, related to, processed by
and collected from the users’ terminal equipment;
f. Articles 17 and 14(4) due to its failure to reply to the data subjects’ request for access
to their personal data.
On the basis of the facts and findings as described above, the EDPS decides:
1. to issue a reprimand to the Parliament in accordance with Article 58(2)(b) of the
Regulation, for the above infringements;
2. to order the Parliament, pursuant to Article 58(2)(b) of the Regulation, to update its
data protection notices in the dedicated website in order to provide all relevant
information relating to the processing of personal data. The Parliament should
address this order within one (1) month from the date of this decision.
In determining the corrective powers used in the present case, the EDPS takes into account
the possibly large number of data subjects affected by the Parliament’s abovementioned
infringements and the impact these had on the former’s fundamental rights and freedoms,
as well as the duration of said infringements.
19
The EDPS notes that the Parliament has been consistently responsive and collaborative
throughout the investigation of the complaint, and that as at the date of the decision most
of the infringements have been remedied.
Pursuant to Article 59 of the Regulation, the Parliament must inform the EDPS, within three
months since the date of this decision, of its views in relation to the abovementioned
reprimand.
Done in Brussels, 5 January 2022
[e-signed]
Wojciech Rafał WIEWIÓROWSKI