Rb. Midden-Nederland - UTR 20/2315

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Rb. Midden-Nederland - UTR 20/2315
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Court: Rb. Midden-Nederland (Netherlands)
Jurisdiction: Netherlands
Relevant Law: Article 6(1)(f) GDPR
Decided: 23.11.2020
Published: 23.11.2020
Parties: VoetbalTV, Dutch DPA (Autoriteit Persoonsgegevens)
National Case Number/Name: UTR 20/2315
European Case Law Identifier: ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111
Appeal from:
Appeal to: Unknown
Original Language(s): Dutch
Original Source: Rechtspraak.nl (in Dutch)
Initial Contributor: Patrick Schreurs

The District Court of Central Netherlands held that VoetbalTV doesn’t have to pay a fine issued by the Dutch DPA. The court did not agree with the restrictive interpretation by the Dutch DPA concerning legitimate interest (Article 6(1)(f) GDPR).

English Summary[edit | edit source]

Facts[edit | edit source]

VoetbalTV, an initiative of the Royal Dutch Football Association (KNVB) and broadcasting company Talpa Network, is recording and broadcasting amateur football. The Dutch DPA fined VoetbalTV for processing personal data without a valid lawful basis. The Dutch DPA published guidance in which it states that a legitimate interest is only legitimate if it stems from a legal provision. Also, a purely commercial interest can never be a legitimate interest, according to the Dutch DPA. VoetbalTV appealed the decision.

Dispute[edit | edit source]

Does a legitimate interest (Article 6(1)(f) GDPR) need to stem from a legal provision and can a purely commercial interest result in a legitimate interest?

Holding[edit | edit source]

The court does not agree with the restrictive interpretation of legitimate interest by the Dutch DPA. Any interest can be a legitimate interest as long as it is not against the law (negative test). The Dutch DPA should have performed a balancing test in order to balance the interests pursued by VoetbalTV against the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subjects. Because the DPA did not perform such a balancing test, the court annulled the decision and the imposed fine.

The court annulled the decision and decided to judge the case itself (Article 8:72a Dutch General Administrative Law Act). Then the court decided to not take a new decision in order to replace the annulled decision, noting that the fine is now completely off the table.

Comment[edit | edit source]

VoetbalTV started this proceeding because the Dutch DPA issued a negative opinion about VoetbalTV, but did follow up with a final decision for a long time. As a result VoetbalTV was unable to challenge the opinion of the Dutch DPA. This long-term investigation resulted in the fact that VoetbalTV is now bankrupt.

Further Resources[edit | edit source]

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English Machine Translation of the Decision[edit | edit source]

The decision below is a machine translation of the Dutch original. Please refer to the Dutch original for more details.

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            </script><meta property="dcterms:identifier" content="ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111" datatype="xsd:anyURI" /><meta property="dcterms:title" content="ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111, Rechtbank Midden-Nederland, UTR 20/2315" /><meta property="dcterms:issued" content="2020-11-23" datatype="xsd:date" /><link rel="dcterms:publisher" /><link rel="dcterms:type" href="http://psi.rechtspraak.nl/uitspraak" title="Statement" /><meta property="dcterms:language" content="nl" datatype="xsd:language" /><meta property="dcterms:creator" content="<span>Rechtbank Midden-Nederland</span>" scheme="overheid.RechterlijkeMacht" resourceidentifier="http://standaarden.overheid.nl/owms/terms/Rechtbank_Midden-Nederland" /><meta property="dcterms:modified" content="2020-11-23" datatype="xsd:date" /><meta property="dcterms:abstract" content="<inhoudsindicatie xmlns="http://www.rechtspraak.nl/schema/rechtspraak-1.0" id="ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111:INH" lang="nl" xml:space="preserve"><parablock><para>VoetbalTV is een platform op internet waarop amateurvoetbalwedstrijden worden uitgezonden. Verweerder vindt dat eiseres voor het maken van opnames en het uitzenden van voetbalwedstrijden geen geldige grondslag heeft en zij verwerkt daarmee dus onrechtmatig persoonsgegevens. Volgens verweerder maakt eiseres door de opnames inbreuk op de privacy een groot aantal betrokkenen, onder wie veel minderjarige voetballers en rechtvaardigt dit een boete van € 575.000,-.</para><para>Eiseres stelt dat het opnemen en uitzenden van de wedstrijden valt onder de journalistieke exceptie. De rechtbank oordeelt dat dit niet het geval is, omdat de beelden te weinig nieuwswaarde bevatten. Eiseres stelt verder dat zij een gerechtvaardigd belang heeft om persoonsgegevens te verwerken, zoals bedoeld in artikel 6, eerste lid, aanhef en onder f, van de AVG. Verweerder vindt dat niet. Hij stelt dat het te gelde maken van persoonsgegevens nooit een gerechtvaardigd belang kan opleveren. De rechtbank volgt verweerder hierin echter niet. Dat eiseres een commercieel belang heeft, betekent niet zonder meer dat zij geen gerechtvaardigd belang kan hebben. Het op voorhand uitsluiten van een bepaald belang als gerechtvaardigd belang, is in strijd met de Europese rechtspraak. Verweerder moet een onderzoek doen naar de belangen van eiseres en vervolgens een afweging maken of zij door het uitzenden van de amateurvoetbalwedstrijden de privacy van betrokkenen ontoelaatbaar schendt. De manier waarop verweerder deze toetsing moet uitvoeren volgt uit de in de uitspraak genoemde arresten van het Hof van Justitie.</para></parablock></inhoudsindicatie>" /><meta property="dcterms:created" content="2020-11-23" datatype="xsd:date" /><link rel="dcterms:subject" href="http://psi.rechtspraak.nl/rechtsgebied#bestuursrecht" title="Administrative law" /><link rel="canonical" href="https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111" /></head><body><div class="rs-wrapper"><div class="rs-header"><div class="container"><div class="rs-logo"> <a href="https://www.rechtspraak.nl" title="Homepage Rechtspraak.nl"><img class="ms-siteicon-img" src="/SharedWebResources.axd?images/logo_2016.png" alt="Logo of the judiciary" /></a> <!--  <img src="data:image/svg+xml, %3Csvg version%3D%221.1%22 id%3D%22logo%22 xmlns%3D%22http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F2000%2Fsvg%22 xmlns%3Axlink%3D%22http%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F1999%2Fxlink%22 x%3D%220px%22 y%3D%220px%22     viewBox%3D%220 0 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</div --><div class="toolbar"></div><!-- END HEADER --><div class="rs-main-contentarea" id="mainContent" data-target=".rs-main-contentarea"> <a class="rnl-button rnl-pagefeedbackform-button no-print" onclick="navigaToFeedbackForm();" href="javascript:undefined"><span>Feedback</span></a> <div class="rnl-content rnl-content-main"><div class="rnl-header-image-container"><div class="rnl-image-gradient"></div><img src="/SharedWebResources.axd?images/uitspraken-header-image-comp.jpg" alt="" /></div><div class="container"><div class="page-header rnl-page-header rnl-page-header-image"><div class="row"><div id="header" class="col-md-8"><h1> Pronunciations </h1></div></div><!--/.row --></div></div><div class="container"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"><div class="rs-panel zoektermen-wrapper"><div class="rs-panel-heading no-print"><h2> <a class="rs-accordion-title" data-toggle="collapse" href="#zoektermen" role="button" aria-expanded="true" aria-controls="zoektermen">Search terms found<span class="rs-collapse-icon-down"></span></a></h2></div><div class="row"><div class="col-md-12"> <label for="showhighlights" id="showhighlightslabel" class="label-highlights pull-left highlights-background"><input type="checkbox" id="showhighlights" name="showhighlights" checked><span id="markeringen-toggle-tekst">Turn markers off</span></label> </div></div><div class="collapse in rs-panel-body gevondenZoektermen no-print" id="zoektermen"><!-- --></div></div></div></div><div class="row opnieuw-zoeken-buttons"><div class="col-md-4"> <a href="/" class="rs-btn rs-btn-secondary search-btn-uitspraken" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'opnieuw-zoeken']);">Search again</a></div><div class="col-md-4"> <a href="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'terug-naar-resultaten']);history.back();" class="rs-btn rs-btn-primary search-btn-uitspraken">Back to the results</a></div></div><div class="row nieuwe-zoekopdracht-button"><div class="col-md-4"> <a href="/" class="rs-btn rs-btn-primary search-btn-uitspraken">New search</a> </div></div><div id="alert-region"><!-- --></div><div class="row"><div id="content" class="col-md-12"><div id="Main" class="rs-panel"><div class="rs-panel-heading rs-heading-inline"><h1 id="ZoekresultaatTekst" class="structural"> Search result - view document</h1><h2 class="left"> ECLI: NL: RBMNE: 2020: 5111</h2><div class="btn-group rs-share rs-hide-mobile no-print"> <button class="rs-btn-secondary rs-btn dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenu1" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="true">Share pronunciation<span class="tri-down"></span></button><ul class="dropdown-menu rs-dropdown" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenu1"><li> <a href="javascript:window.print()" id="linkToPrint" class="printUitspraak" title="Print the document" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'printen']);"><span>Print</span></a></li><li> <a class="pdfUitspraak no-print" href="/InzienDocument/GetPdf?ecli=ECLI%3ANL%3ARBMNE%3A2020%3A5111" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'download-pdf']);">Save as PDF</a></li><li> <a href="javascript:undefined" id="copyUitspraak" class="no-print" data-clipboard-text="http://deeplink.rechtspraak.nl/uitspraak?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111" title="Copy link to statement" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'kopieer']);"><span>Copy link</span></a></li></ul></div><div class="rs-copied-to-clipboard" id="clipboardInfo" style="display: none;"> Link copied to clipboard</div></div><div class="rs-panel-body"><dl class="dl-horizontal"><dt> Authority</dt><dd> <span>Central Netherlands District Court</span></dd><dt> Date of judgment</dt><dd> 23-11-2020</dd><dt> Date of publication</dt><dd> 23-11-2020</dd><dt> Case number</dt><dd> <span>UTR 20/2315</span><br /></dd><dt> Jurisdictions</dt><dd> <span>Administrative law</span><br /></dd><dt> Special characteristics</dt><dd> <span>First instance - multiple</span><br /></dd><dt> Content indication</dt><dd><div class="inhoudsindicatie"><div class="parablock"><p> VoetbalTV is a platform on the internet that broadcasts amateur football matches. Respondent is of the opinion that the plaintiff has no valid basis for recording and broadcasting football matches and that she therefore unlawfully processes personal data. According to the defendant, the plaintiff infringes the privacy of a large number of those involved, including many underage football players, and this justifies a fine of € 575,000.</p><p> Plaintiff argues that the recording and broadcasting of the matches falls under the journalistic exception. The court ruled that this is not the case, because the images contain too little news value. Plaintiff further states that it has a legitimate interest in processing personal data, as referred to in Article 6, first paragraph, opening lines and under f, of the GDPR. Respondent does not agree. He argues that the monetization of personal data can never constitute a legitimate interest. However, the court does not follow the defendant in this. The fact that plaintiff has a commercial interest does not necessarily mean that it cannot have a legitimate interest. Excluding a particular interest in advance as a legitimate interest is contrary to European case law. The defendant must investigate the interests of the plaintiff and then consider whether it is inadmissibly violating the privacy of those involved by broadcasting the amateur football matches. The manner in which the defendant must carry out this assessment follows from the judgments of the Court of Justice referred to in the judgment.</p></div></div></dd><dt> Locations</dt><dd> <span>Rechtspraak.nl</span><br /></dd><dt class="no-print"></dt><dd class="no-print"> <a href="https://linkeddata.overheid.nl/document/ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111" id="linkToKoop" class="koopUitspraak" title="Enriched pronunciation"><span class="no-print">Enriched pronunciation</span></a></dd></dl><div class="btn-group rs-share rs-hide-desktop no-print"> <button class="rs-btn-secondary rs-btn dropdown-toggle" type="button" id="dropdownMenu1" data-toggle="dropdown" aria-haspopup="true" aria-expanded="true">Share pronunciation<span class="tri-down"></span></button><ul class="dropdown-menu rs-dropdown" aria-labelledby="dropdownMenu1"><li> <a href="javascript:printUitspraak()" id="linkToPrint" class="printUitspraak" title="Print the document" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'printen']);"><span>Print</span></a></li><li> <a class="pdfUitspraak no-print" href="/InzienDocument/GetPdf?ecli=ECLI%3ANL%3ARBMNE%3A2020%3A5111" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'download-pdf']);">Save as PDF</a></li><li> <a href="javascript:undefined" id="copyUitspraak" class="no-print" data-clipboard-text="http://deeplink.rechtspraak.nl/uitspraak?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2020:5111" title="Copy link to statement" onclick="javascript:_paq.push(['trackEvent','uitspraken-pagina', 'button', 'kopieer']);"><span>Copy link</span></a></li></ul></div><div class="uitspraakH3"><h3> Statement </h3></div><div><div class="uitspraak"><div class="uitspraak-info"><h2 name="ID0EJ" style="font-weight:bold;" class="bridgehead"> COURT OF THE MIDDLE NETHERLANDS</h2><p> Seat in Utrecht<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><div class="parablock"><p>Administrative law</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>case number: UTR 20/2315</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><h2 name="ID0E5" style="font-weight:bold;" class="bridgehead">Judgment of the three-judge chamber of 23 November 2020 in the case between</h2><div class="parablock"><p> VoetbalTV BV, in Amsterdam, plaintiff</p><p> (authorized representative: mr. QR Kroes and mr. M. Oostveen),</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>and</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Dutch Data Protection Authority, respondent</p><p> (authorized representative: mr. E. Nijhof and mr. OS Nijveld).</p></div><span class="linebreak2"> </span></div><div class="section procesverloop"><h2>Process course</h2><div class="parablock"><p><br /> Plaintiff filed an appeal with the court late on 20 May 2020 because the defendant, despite an earlier intention to do so, did not take a decision to enforce it.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>In its decision of 16 July 2020 (the contested decision), the defendant imposed a fine of € 575,000 on the plaintiff for the unlawful processing of personal data.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>The appeal against the late decision also relates to the contested decision on the basis of Article 6:20, third paragraph, of the General Administrative Law Act (Awb).<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>Respondent has lodged a statement of defense.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>The hearing took place on 12 October 2020. Its directors M. Hoffer and M. Balken, and its agents, appeared on behalf of Plaintiff. The defendant was represented by his agents.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span></div><div class="section overwegingen"><h2>Considerations</h2><span class="linebreak1"> </span></div><div class="section"><h2>preface</h2><ol class="arabic" name="ID0EQD"><li><p> On September 11, 2020, the Central Netherlands District Court declared the plaintiff's bankruptcy. However, before the plaintiff was declared bankrupt, the parties were invited to a hearing of the court and therefore, in view of Article 8:22, second paragraph of the Awb, Article 27, second paragraph, of the Bankruptcy Act does not apply. The claimant's appeal can therefore be heard by the court despite her bankruptcy.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></li><li><p>This judgment concerns a fine that the defendant has imposed on the plaintiff. The legal framework is included in the appendix that forms part of this judgment.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></li><li><p>VoetbalTV is a video platform for amateur football. Plaintiff makes video recordings of games in amateur football on behalf of football clubs. At the beginning of 2020, 153 clubs took part in VoetbalTV and about 2500 to 3000 matches were recorded and broadcast every month. In addition, VoetbalTV is a social platform. The VoetbalTV app is used by an estimated 520,000 people. On the VoetbalTV platform you can watch football moments, analyze matches, collect data and share it with others. Plaintiff's own editorial team also collects 'highlights' such as goals and odds and displays these. In addition, trainers / analysts can use an analysis tool.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></li><li><p>Respondent has investigated the privacy of players and spectators. This investigation resulted in a draft investigation report of 15 May 2019 and, after the plaintiff submitted an opinion, to a final investigation report of 6 November 2019, in which the defendant concludes that the plaintiff is unlawfully processing personal data. Respondent issued its intention to proceed with enforcement on 22 November 2019. Because a decision to enforce was not made, Plaintiff filed an appeal against the late decision on 20 May 2020. The defendant subsequently took the contested decision on 16 July 2020.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></li></ol><h2 name="ID0EQE" style="font-style:italic;" class="bridgehead">About the appeal against a late decision</h2><p> 5. The appeal lodged by the plaintiff against the late decision also automatically pertains to the contested decision. Plaintiff no longer has an interest in an assessment of her appeal against the late decision, because a decision has since been taken. That is why the court declares the appeal against the late decision inadmissible.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><h2 name="ID0EXE" style="font-style:italic;" class="bridgehead">About the contested decision</h2><p> 6. Respondent imposed a fine of € 575,000 on Claimant because she has unlawfully processed personal data. The defendant accuses the plaintiff of having made video recordings of a large number of amateur football matches without lawful basis and of further distributing these images to a large audience via the VoetbalTV app and via the analysis tools. In doing so, it acted in violation of Article 5, first paragraph, opening words and under a, in conjunction with Article 6, first paragraph, of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). According to the respondent, the plaintiff has infringed the right to respect for privacy and the right to the protection of personal data of a large number of data subjects, including many minors. As a result, these data subjects have lost (in part) control over their personal data. Respondent considers this to be a serious offense that warrants a large fine.<br /> <span class="emphasis" style="font-style:italic;">Journalistic exception</span></p><p> 7. Plaintiff does not agree with this. First, it argues that the defendant is wholly (or partially) unauthorized to impose a fine for the processing of the personal data, because the journalistic exception of Article 85 GDPR in conjunction with Article 43 of the General Data Protection Regulation Implementation Act (UAVG) case applies to the data processing. According to the plaintiff, the defendant himself also thinks that this applies to at least part of the processing of personal data, because the investigation report does not refer to the editorial articles of VoetbalTV. Plaintiff will first have to make video recordings of amateur football matches before she can compile and distribute images with news value. According to the plaintiff, the defendant cannot therefore judge the entire processing of the plaintiff's video images. Moreover, according to the plaintiff, the respondent applies the journalistic exception too rigidly and uses an incorrect standard. Although the defendant refers to the settled case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and the Court of Justice (CJEU) and thus seems to recognize that the journalistic objection must be interpreted broadly, he ignores the fact that the plaintiff is a media company and that the processing takes place in that context. According to the plaintiff, it follows from European case law that the journalistic exception must concern activities aimed at disclosing information, opinions or ideas to the public, regardless of the transmission medium. According to her, that is the case here. Respondent misunderstands the news value and social relevance of (integrated) sports broadcasts. The CJEU has explicitly ruled that having a commercial (secondary) purpose does not preclude this qualification. The defendant wrongly takes the position that the processing of these data only leads to the satisfaction of curiosity. The case law to which the defendant refers is not relevant to this situation according to the plaintiff.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>8. The court does not agree with the plaintiff in its position that the defendant itself also believes that the editorial activities would fall under the journalistic exception. The defendant has stated that the editorial activities of the plaintiff were not involved in the investigation and that this processing of personal data therefore did not lead to the fine. The respondent has not commented at all on the question whether the journalistic exception applies to this processing of personal data. The fine imposed on the plaintiff relates to the unlawful making of video recordings according to the defendant and the large-scale distribution thereof. The court does not see any indication for a different position in the investigation report and the fine.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>9. The journalistic exception applies to the processing of personal data that only (exclusively) takes place for journalistic purposes. <a class="noteref" href="#_2467ed3e-1104-4d2f-8178-202ee41fce68" title="Consideration 153 to the GDPR, Article 43 of the UAVG.">1</a> For the answer to the question whether the processing of personal data fined by the defendant falls under the journalistic exception, the court adheres to European case law, as laid down in, among other things, the judgments of the CJEU regarding Satamedia <a class="noteref" href="#_338aeca4-df10-49ca-8b10-e1c37eec4930" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 16 December 2008, no. C ‑ 73/07, ECLI: EU: C: 2008: 727.">2</a> and Buidvids <a class="noteref" href="#_1a69bd88-fb24-4932-92d9-917a0606d82d" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 14 February 2019, no. C ‑ 345/17, ECLI: EU: C: 2019: 122.">3</a> and the judgment of the ECtHR on Satamedia. <a class="noteref" href="#_2f08bd1a-6adc-43be-bdd1-13e48bb5e959" title="Judgment of the ECHR, 27 June 2017, No. 931/13, ECLI: CE: ECHR: 2017: 0627JUD000093113.">4</a> It follows from those judgments that the journalistic exception must be interpreted broadly in the interests of freedom of expression. This exception applies not only to media companies, but to all journalistic activities, as long as their purpose is to communicate information, opinions or ideas to the public. The transmission medium is not important here. It is also up to the court to assess whether the processing of personal data only pursues a journalistic purpose. It is irrelevant that the disclosure to the public is also made for profit. Moreover, it follows from the ECtHR's Satamedia judgment that the fact that there is a social interest in allowing journalists to collect and process personal data for a publication that contributes to a public debate does not mean that the unfiltered publication of this collected personal data also serves a social interest. <a class="noteref" href="#_69a6c55c-fa00-464b-8c26-b8592962e89c" title="See r.o. 175 of the judgment">5</a><span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><div class="parablock"><p>10. The court is of the opinion that recording the football matches and broadcasting them to the public does not in this case only serve a journalistic purpose and thus follows the defendant's position. This is because the broadcast of amateur football matches cannot be regarded as a disclosure to the public of information, opinions or ideas. The competitions have too little news value for that; it is about broadcasting amateur sports and games. The images do not provide information about famous persons, for example famous football players, and do not contribute to any social debate. It concerns the unfiltered processing of a large amount of personal data collected by the plaintiff herself. The processing operations as a whole do not have an exclusively journalistic purpose. The fact that all the images collected by her may contain newsworthy information does not mean that all thousands of broadcasted matches can be seen as journalistic and does not justify the recording and broadcasting of all these matches. The plaintiff's argument is therefore unsuccessful and the defendant is authorized to investigate the plaintiff's data processing as a supervisor. The journalistic exception therefore does not apply to the data processing that this procedure is about. Plaintiff's argument is therefore unsuccessful.<br /> <span class="emphasis" style="font-style:italic;">Legitimate interest</span></p><p> 11. The defendant has based the fine on the fact that the plaintiff is processing data unlawfully, because that processing is not necessary for the representation of the legitimate interests of the controller or of a third party, thus not complying with Article 6, first paragraph, preamble and under f of the GDPR. Respondent takes the position that a legitimate interest is an interest that has been designated as a legal interest in (general) legislation or elsewhere in the law. It must therefore be an interest that is also protected in law, that is considered worthy of protection and that in principle must be respected and can be 'enforced'. For an interest to be regarded as a legitimate interest, this interest must have a more or less urgent and specific character that arises from a (written or unwritten) rule of law or legal principle; in a sense it must be inevitable that these legitimate interests are promoted. Purely commercial interests and the importance of profit maximization are not specific enough and lack an urgent 'legal' character, so that they cannot be regarded as legitimate interests. The core of the plaintiff's activities consists of the processing of personal data and she earns money with that processing. It therefore has a purely economic interest in processing personal data. According to the respondent, this can never be a legitimate interest. If the performance of that core activity could be regarded as a legitimate interest, this means that the subsequent necessity test and balancing of interests become meaningless.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>12. Plaintiff argues that this explanation of the defendant is contrary to the explanation of authoritative European working groups and committees, case law, experts and finally also the earlier explanation of the defendant itself. According to the plaintiff, a negative test must be applied to the question whether a processor has a legitimate interest, which means that 'justified' means: not contrary to the law. However, the defendant wrongly applies a positive test by stating that the plaintiff must have a legal interest. This is incorrect according to Plaintiff.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>13. The court establishes that personal data may only be processed if there is a basis for that processing. The bases are listed exhaustively in Article 6, first paragraph, of the GDPR. It is not disputed between the parties that the plaintiff does not have the consent of all those involved whose personal data are processed for making video recordings and distributing images. There is also no processing that is necessary for the performance of an agreement. The court will therefore have to assess whether Plaintiff has a legitimate interest for which processing of personal data is necessary, as referred to in Article 6, paragraph 1, opening lines and under f, of the GDPR.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>14. For a successful appeal to Article 6, first paragraph, opening lines and under f, of the GDPR, three conditions must be met. This follows from, among other things, the ruling of the CJEU on Fashion ID, <a class="noteref" href="#_37d6121b-78b2-4613-8173-fd3fab9c9e39" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 29 July 2019, no. C-40/17, ECLI: EU: C: 2019: 629.">6</a> in which the CJEU explains Article 7, under f, of Directive 95/46, <a class="noteref" href="#_b5b9f711-6477-4638-ad1b-2dd5d1c15da1" title="Directive 95/46 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.">7</a> which is substantively the same as Article 6, first paragraph, opening lines and under f, of the GDPR. The first condition is that the interest that the plaintiff pursues is a legitimate interest. If that is the case, then it must be assessed whether the processing of the personal data is necessary for the representation of that legitimate interest, which also involves assessing proportionality and subsidiarity: is the infringement for the data subjects in proportion to the processing? target? And cannot the goal be achieved in a way that is less disadvantageous for those involved? The third condition is that there must be a balance between the interests of the controller and those involved.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></div><p>15. The case law of the CJEU does not give a clear description of what a legitimate interest is and the interpretation of the defendant that - in short - it should be a legal interest, has not been found as such in that case law. The respondent has also not referred to specific judgments in which this interpretation is endorsed. In his Opinion on the aforementioned judgment of the CJEU on Fashion ID, Advocate General M. Bobek <a class="noteref" href="#_d436e7ea-55e4-41e9-882a-2f4fe6c7a9ae" title="Opinion AG CJEU, 19 December 2018, no. C-40/17, ECLI: EU: C: 2018: 1039.">8</a> explains that Directive 95/46 also contains no definition or enumeration of what exactly the term 'legitimate interest' entails. According to Bobek, this concept is quite flexible and open in nature and he refers to his own conclusion in the CJEU judgment on Rīgas satiksme, <a class="noteref" href="#_e7dab151-83ad-47b1-b2ce-b45d9e8c9fb7" title="Opinion AG CJEU, 27 January 2017, no. C-13/16, ECLI: EU: C: 2017: 43.">9</a> in which he mentions the CJEU rulings on Volker und Markus Schecke and Eifert, <a class="noteref" href="#_b24a0de3-6025-4678-bc2b-f18b398148ff" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 9 November 2010, nos. C-92/09 and C-93/09, ECLI: EU: C: 2010: 662, para 77.">10</a> and Ryneš <a class="noteref" href="#_18f9445c-2ec6-40e4-8927-d8ba4c6e7af1" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 11 December 2014, no. C-2012/13, ECLI: EU: C: 2014: 2428, paragraph 34.">11</a> . Furthermore, in his Opinion in Fashion ID, Bobek refers to the judgments in Promusicae, <a class="noteref" href="#_7b61ad88-2cd3-41e6-8744-e5c9121c3946" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 29 January 2008, no. C-275/06, ECLI: EU: C: 2008: 54, paragraph 53.">12</a> and Rīgas satiksme, <a class="noteref" href="#_79872719-10dc-4673-a74f-1568787e7ad3" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 4 May 2017, no. C-13/16, ECLI: EU: C: 2017: 336, paragraph 29.">13</a> in support of his position. As examples of legitimate interests, Bobek mentions 'transparency' and 'protection of property, health and family life'. The Fashion ID case concerned the collection and transmission of personal data in order to be able to advertise as well as possible and that could also be a legitimate interest, according to Bobek. If legal in itself, there is, according to Bobek, no type of interest that is necessarily excluded. Bobek bases this conclusion, among other things, on the opinion of the Article 29 Working Group (WP29, the predecessor of the European Data Protection Board (EDPB)). In its 2014 opinion, <a class="noteref" href="#_a81e37f9-22b9-448f-af76-610f58a3eeae" title="Opinion 06/2014 on the notion of legitimate interests of the data controller under Article 7 of Directive 95/46 / EC, Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, 9 April 2-14, p. 24.">14</a> the WP29 stated that the legitimate interest should be interpreted as a concept that can cover a range of different interests, whether they are trivial or compelling interests, whether they are evident or more controversial. , provided it is a real and present (and therefore not speculative) interest. Not only legal, but also all kinds of factual, economic and idealistic interests can therefore qualify as legitimate interests.<br /> The CJEU has repeatedly confirmed that Member States are not free to exclude in advance or categorically invoking the legitimate interest for certain categories of processing. <a class="noteref" href="#_b1ad5aa0-d022-4d20-8be0-a25e9c36b223" title="See, for example, the CJEU judgment on ASNEF, 24 November 2011, nos. C-468/10 and C-469/10, ECLI: EU: C: 2011: 777, para. 48 and judgment on M5A-ScaraA, 11 December 2019, no. C-708/18, ECLI: EU: C: 2019: 1064, paragraph 53.">15</a><span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><div class="parablock"><p>16. In view of the above-mentioned European case law, conclusions of the Advocate General and the opinion of the WP29, the court endorses the plaintiff's position that the question whether a processor of personal data has a legitimate interest, on the basis of a negative test must be assessed. This test means that the processor may not pursue an interest that is contrary to the law. The fact that the legitimate interest of Article 6, paragraph 1, opening lines and under f of the GDPR should not be seen as a more or less legal interest, as the respondent believes, but much more as a legitimate interest, is also consistent with the foreign translations. of this concept, namely 'legitimate interests' (Eng.), 'Justice Interessen' (Du.) and 'des intérêts légitimes' (Fr.). A clear distinction has thus been made with the legal obligation referred to in Article 6, first paragraph, opening lines and under c, of the GDPR, 'legal obligation' (Eng.), 'Rechtlichen Verpflichtung' (Du.) And 'une obligation'. légale '(Fr.). The fact that the legitimate interest must be viewed through a negative test is also in line with recital 47 of the GDPR, which mentions 'direct marketing' as an example of a possible legitimate interest. In the opinion of the court, in designating this interest as a legitimate interest, no legal interest, as understood by the respondent, can be cited as a basis.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>17. The plaintiff must then state what her legitimate interest is in the processing of personal data and she must actually act accordingly. The processing of personal data may not be in conflict with the law, nor may it go beyond its statutory purpose. In short: do not violate the law. The way in which the CJEU subsequently tests the admissibility of the processing of personal data also deviates from the defendant's assessment in this case, which is once again an indication that the defendant is starting from too strict an approach. As an example, the court refers to the ruling of the CJEU regarding Google Spain and Google. <a class="noteref" href="#_f464ec0d-f561-43e6-a854-58536e77cd1c" title="Judgment of the CJEU, 13 May 2014, no. C-131/12, ECLI: EU: C: 2014: 317, para. 73 et seq.">16</a> In that judgment, the CJEU held that the processing of personal data at issue there may fall under Article 7 (f) of Directive 95/46, if such processing is necessary for the defense of the legitimate interest of the processing controller or of the third party or third parties to whom the data are disclosed, provided that the interest or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject, and in particular his right to respect for his privacy when processing personal data, which rights under Article 1 (1) of this Directive should be protected, not prevail. Thus, the CJEU considers, the application of this Article 7 (f) necessarily entails a weighing up of the opposing rights and interests at issue, in the context of which the interests of the parties arising from the proceedings must be taken into account. rights deriving from the rights of the data subject in Articles 7 and 8 of the Charter.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></div><p>18. With the strict application that the defendant uses here, he has not arrived at such an assessment as the CJEU describes here. The respondent has therefore not interpreted the legitimate interest in an open and flexible manner, as it should. He thereby ignores the fact that the term 'legitimate' interest mainly serves as an external limit for the assessment and not as a threshold. The court is also not aware of any rulings in which the CJEU, without further assessment of the interests of both the processor and the data subject (s), finds that the processor has no legitimate interest at all in the processing and is acting unlawfully for that reason alone. . The defendant's explanation that the plaintiff is essentially only concerned with the monetization of personal data and that this interest can never be a legitimate interest, ignores the fact that the CJEU specifically prohibits the pre-exclusion of certain legitimate interests. Nor does the court follow the defendant's conclusion that the necessity test and the balancing of interests are meaningless, if it is assumed that the interest that the plaintiff pursues is a legitimate interest. The court will explain below why it does not agree with that position.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>19. Respondent takes the position that the interest that the plaintiff pursues in processing personal data is a purely commercial interest, in which she monetizes the personal data of others, including many minors. However, this is not the interest that Plaintiff himself states to pursue with VoetbalTV. She argues that her legitimate interest in broadcasting the images lies in a. Increasing the involvement and fun of football fans, including players who are portrayed, b. being able to perform technical analyzes for / by trainers and / or analysts of the football clubs and third parties and c. offering the possibility to players, friends and family members, among others, to be able to (re) watch matches remotely, for example if they cannot be physically present.<br /> In addition, Plaintiff has a channelization function that is a legitimate interest for herself and the KNVB, because she contributes to a higher level of privacy protection and prevents the recording of matches via other channels.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>20. As the court has already considered in paragraph 17, it is up to the processor of the personal data to establish a legitimate interest. The court does not see any leads for the defendant's conclusion that his interpretation of the plaintiff's interest should be leading. With due observance of recital 47 of the GDPR, the respondent will have to assess whether it is necessary to process personal data on the basis of the objectives set by the plaintiff. It is up to the plaintiff to explain the extent to which it collects and processes data, how it has arranged this legally and how it ensures that there is an appropriate relationship between the invasion of the privacy of the data subjects and the interest it pursues (proportionality and subsidiarity). Subsequently, the defendant will have to weigh up the interests alleged against the violation of the privacy of those involved, including in this case minor children. The point here is that the defendant looks at what the plaintiff actually does, whether the objectives correspond with its articles of association and are actually promoted by the processing of the personal data. If the respondent starts from the interests stated by the plaintiff, he can therefore - contrary to what he assumes - carry out a necessity test and weighing up interests.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>21. In summary, the court comes to the conclusion that the defendant's assessment in this case is based on a misinterpretation of the concept of 'legitimate interest' and is therefore contrary to Article 6, first paragraph, opening words and under f, of the GDPR. In the contested decision, the respondent also carried out a necessity test and weighing up interests in the alternative and takes the position that that assessment also leads to the data being processed unlawfully and that the fine was therefore correctly imposed.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>22. However, the court finds that the investigation carried out by the defendant and the investigation report that he subsequently prepared do not concern the question whether it is necessary for the plaintiff to process the personal data for the purposes set by it. Proportionality and subsidiarity were not part of that assessment. Nor did the respondent weigh up the interests at that stage of the investigation. Because the defendant has not fully investigated the processing of personal data and has stopped when it establishes that the plaintiff has no legitimate interest, the other decision was not taken with sufficient care and is therefore in violation of Article 3: 2 of the Awb. The fine cannot therefore be upheld.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><div class="parablock"><p>23. The appeal is well-founded and the court sets aside the contested decision of 16 July 2020. In application of Article 8: 72a of the Awb, the court sees reason to provide for the case itself, in the sense that it does not take any other decision in the location of the act nullified. This means that the fine is completely off the table. Because the court declares the appeal to be well-founded, the court determines that the defendant reimburses the plaintiff the court fee paid by it.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p>24. The court orders the defendant to pay the costs incurred by the plaintiff. On the basis of the Administrative Costs Decree, the court has set these costs for legal aid provided by a third party at € 1,575 (1 point for submitting the notice of appeal, 1 point for appearing at a hearing, with a value per point of € 525.00 and a weighting factor 1.5). According to settled case law, it is assumed that the handling of a case in objection and appeal in principle belongs to the category 'average' with a weighting factor one, unless there are clear reasons that should lead to deviation from this starting point. In this case, the court finds that those reasons are present. The complexity of this case means that the court classifies the case as 'serious' and that means that the weighting factor is set at one and a half in this case.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span></div><div class="section beslissing"><h2>Decision</h2><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>The court:<br /> - declares the appeal against the late decision inadmissible;<br /> - declares the appeal against the decision of 16 July 2020 to be well-founded;<br /> - annuls the decision of 16 July 2020 and stipulates that this decision replaces the annulled decision;</p></div><p> - orders the defendant to reimburse the plaintiff the paid court fee of € 354;</p><p> - orders the defendant to pay the plaintiff's legal costs up to an amount of € 1,575.<span class="linebreak1"> </span><span class="linebreak4"> </span></p><div class="parablock"><p>This statement was made by Mr. JJ Catsburg, chairman, and Mr. PJM Mol and Mr. M. Eversteijn, members, in the presence of Mr. MEC Bakker, registrar. The decision was handed down on November 23, 2020 and will be made public by publication onrechtspraak.nl.</p></div><span class="linebreak5"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Registrar Chairman</p></div><span class="linebreak2"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Copy sent to parties on:</p></div><span class="linebreak2"> </span></div><div class="section"><h2>Remedy</h2><p> An appeal can be lodged against this decision with the Administrative Jurisdiction Division of the Council of State within six weeks of the date on which it was sent.<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><div class="parablock"><p>Appendix<span class="linebreak1"> </span></p><p><span class="emphasis" style="font-style:italic;">General Administrative Law Act</span><br /> Article 6: 2<br /> For the application of statutory regulations on objections and appeals are equated with a decision:<br /> […]<br /> b. failure to make a timely decision.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Section 6:20<br /> […]<br /> 3 The appeal against not taking a decision on time also relates to the decision still taken, unless this fully complies with the appeal.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p><span class="emphasis" style="font-style:italic;">General Data Protection Regulation</span></p><p> Article 5<br /> 1. Personal data must:<br /> (a) processed in a way that is lawful, fair and transparent with regard to the data subject ('lawfulness, fairness and transparency'); […}</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Article 6<br /> 1. The processing is only lawful if and insofar as at least one of the following conditions is met:<br /> a) the data subject has given consent to the processing of his / her personal data for one or more specific purposes; b) the processing is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is a party, or to take measures at the request of the data subject prior to the conclusion of an agreement;<br /> c) processing is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation incumbent on the controller;<br /> […]<br /> f) processing is necessary for the pursuit of the legitimate interests of the controller or of a third party, except where the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject, which require the protection of personal data, outweigh those interests, in particular when the data subject is a child.</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Article 85<br /> 1. Member States shall harmonize the right to protection of personal data in accordance with this Regulation with the right to freedom of expression and information, including processing for journalistic purposes and for academic, artistic or literary expression.<br /> 2. For processing for journalistic purposes or for academic, artistic or literary expression, Member States shall establish exceptions or derogations from Chapter II (principles), Chapter III (rights of the data subject), Chapter IV (the controller and the processor), Chapter V (transfer of personal data to third countries or international organizations), Chapter VI (independent supervisory authorities), Chapter VII (cooperation and coherence) and Chapter IX (specific data processing situations) if these are necessary to ensure compliance with the right to protection of personal data with freedom of expression and information.</p><p> […]</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p>Article 83<br /> […]<br /> 8. The exercise by the supervisory authority of its powers under this Article shall be subject to appropriate procedural safeguards in accordance with Union and Member State law, including effective judicial remedy and due process. […].</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p><span class="emphasis" style="font-style:italic;">General Data Protection Regulation Implementation Act</span><br /> Article 43<br /> 1. This Act, with the exception of Articles 1 to 4 and 5, paragraphs 1 and 2, does not apply to the processing of personal data for exclusively journalistic purposes and for the sole purpose of academic, artistic or literary forms of expression.<br /> […]</p></div><span class="linebreak1"> </span><div class="parablock"><p><span class="emphasis" style="font-style:italic;">GDPR considerations</span><br /> (47) The legitimate interests of a controller, including those of a controller to whom the personal data may be disclosed, or of a third party, can provide a legal basis for processing, provided that the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject do not override taking into account the reasonable expectations of the data subject based on his relationship with the controller. Such a legitimate interest may exist, for example, where there is a relevant and appropriate relationship between the data subject and the controller, in situations where the data subject is a customer or employed by the controller. In any case, a careful assessment is required to determine whether there is a legitimate interest, as well as to determine whether a data subject can reasonably expect at the time and in the context of the collection of the personal data that processing can take place for that purpose. In particular, the interests and fundamental rights of the data subject may outweigh the interest of the controller when personal data are processed in circumstances where the data subjects cannot reasonably expect further processing. Since it is up to the legislator to create the legal basis for processing personal data by public authorities, that legal basis should not apply to processing by public authorities in the performance of their duties. The processing of personal data which is strictly necessary for fraud prevention is also a legitimate interest of the controller in question. The processing of personal data for the purpose of direct marketing can be considered as carried out with a legitimate interest in mind.</p></div><span class="linebreak2"> </span></div><div class="footnotes"><p><span class="footnote" id="ID0E5HAC"><span class="note"><a name="_2467ed3e-1104-4d2f-8178-202ee41fce68">1</a></span> <span>Consideration 153 to the GDPR, Article 43 of the UAVG.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EFIAC"><span class="note"><a name="_338aeca4-df10-49ca-8b10-e1c37eec4930">2</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 16 December 2008, no. C ‑ 73/07, ECLI: EU: C: 2008: 727.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EMIAC"><span class="note"><a name="_1a69bd88-fb24-4932-92d9-917a0606d82d">3</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 14 February 2019, no. C ‑ 345/17, ECLI: EU: C: 2019: 122.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0ETIAC"><span class="note"><a name="_2f08bd1a-6adc-43be-bdd1-13e48bb5e959">4</a></span> <span>Judgment of the ECtHR, 27 June 2017, No. 931/13, ECLI: CE: ECHR: 2017: 0627JUD000093113.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0E1IAC"><span class="note"><a name="_69a6c55c-fa00-464b-8c26-b8592962e89c">5</a></span> <span>See paragraph 175 of the judgment</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EBJAC"><span class="note"><a name="_37d6121b-78b2-4613-8173-fd3fab9c9e39">6</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 29 July 2019, no. C-40/17, ECLI: EU: C: 2019: 629.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EIJAC"><span class="note"><a name="_b5b9f711-6477-4638-ad1b-2dd5d1c15da1">7</a></span> <span>Directive 95/46 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EPJAC"><span class="note"><a name="_d436e7ea-55e4-41e9-882a-2f4fe6c7a9ae">8</a></span> <span>Opinion AG CJEU, 19 December 2018, no. C-40/17, ECLI: EU: C: 2018: 1039.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EWJAC"><span class="note"><a name="_e7dab151-83ad-47b1-b2ce-b45d9e8c9fb7">9</a></span> <span>Opinion AG CJEU, 27 January 2017, no. C-13/16, ECLI: EU: C: 2017: 43.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0E4JAC"><span class="note"><a name="_b24a0de3-6025-4678-bc2b-f18b398148ff">10</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 9 November 2010, nos. C-92/09 and C-93/09, ECLI: EU: C: 2010: 662, para 77.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EEKAC"><span class="note"><a name="_18f9445c-2ec6-40e4-8927-d8ba4c6e7af1">11</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 11 December 2014, no. C-2012/13, ECLI: EU: C: 2014: 2428, paragraph 34.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0ELKAC"><span class="note"><a name="_7b61ad88-2cd3-41e6-8744-e5c9121c3946">12</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 29 January 2008, no. C-275/06, ECLI: EU: C: 2008: 54, paragraph 53.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0ESKAC"><span class="note"><a name="_79872719-10dc-4673-a74f-1568787e7ad3">13</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 4 May 2017, no. C-13/16, ECLI: EU: C: 2017: 336, paragraph 29.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EZKAC"><span class="note"><a name="_a81e37f9-22b9-448f-af76-610f58a3eeae">14</a></span> <span>Opinion 06/2014 on the notion of legitimate interests of the data controller under Article 7 of Directive 95/46 / EC, Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, 9 April 2-14, p. 24.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EALAC"><span class="note"><a name="_b1ad5aa0-d022-4d20-8be0-a25e9c36b223">15</a></span> <span>See, for example, the judgment of the CJEU on ASNEF, 24 November 2011, nos. C-468/10 and C-469/10, ECLI: EU: C: 2011: 777, para. 48 and judgment on M5A-ScaraA, 11 December 2019, no. C-708/18, ECLI: EU: C: 2019: 1064, paragraph 53.</span></span></p><p> <span class="footnote" id="ID0EHLAC"><span class="note"><a name="_f464ec0d-f561-43e6-a854-58536e77cd1c">16</a></span> <span>Judgment of the CJEU, 13 May 2014, no. 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