Difference between revisions of "Article 12 GDPR"

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==Relevant Recitals==
 
==Relevant Recitals==
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{{Recital/11 GDPR}}{{Recital/39 GDPR}}{{Recital/57 GDPR}}{{Recital/58 GDPR}}{{Recital/59 GDPR}}{{Recital/60 GDPR}}{{Recital/63 GDPR}}{{Recital/64 GDPR}}{{Recital/73 GDPR}}{{Recital/166 GDPR}}
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<div>'''Recital 39:''' Lawful and fair processing</div>
 
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Any processing of personal data should be lawful and fair. It should be transparent to natural persons that personal data concerning them are collected, used, consulted or otherwise processed and to what extent the personal data are or will be processed. The principle of transparency requires that any information and communication relating to the processing of those personal data be easily accessible and easy to understand, and that clear and plain language be used. That principle concerns, in particular, information to the data subjects on the identity of the controller and the purposes of the processing and further information to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the natural persons concerned and their right to obtain confirmation and communication of personal data concerning them which are being processed. Natural persons should be made aware of risks, rules, safeguards and rights in relation to the processing of personal data and how to exercise their rights in relation to such processing. In particular, the specific purposes for which personal data are processed should be explicit and legitimate and determined at the time of the collection of the personal data. The personal data should be adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary for the purposes for which they are processed. This requires, in particular, ensuring that the period for which the personal data are stored is limited to a strict minimum. Personal data should be processed only if the purpose of the processing could not reasonably be fulfilled by other means. In order to ensure that the personal data are not kept longer than necessary, time limits should be established by the controller for erasure or for a periodic review. Every reasonable step should be taken to ensure that personal data which are inaccurate are rectified or deleted. Personal data should be processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security and confidentiality of the personal data, including for preventing unauthorised access to or use of personal data and the equipment used for the processing.
 
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==Commentary on Article 12==
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===(1) Requirements of Information in the GDPR===
<div>'''Recital 57:''' Processing which does not require identification</div>
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In describing the general requirements of information to be provided to the user, Article 12(1) GDPR refers to [[Article 13 GDPR|Articles 13]], [[Article 14 GDPR|14]], [[Article 15 GDPR|15]] to [[Article 22 GDPR|22]] and [[Article 34 GDPR|34 GDPR]]. Considered together, these provisions list all communication and information obligations by the controller to the data subject.  
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If the personal data processed by a controller do not permit the controller to identify a natural person, the data controller should not be obliged to acquire additional information in order to identify the data subject for the sole purpose of complying with any provision of this Regulation. However, the controller should not refuse to take additional information provided by the data subject in order to support the exercise of his or her rights. Identification should include the digital identification of a data subject, for example through authentication mechanism such as the same credentials, used by the data subject to log-in to the on-line service offered by the data controller.
 
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It follows that no matter whether the information refers to future processing, as in [[Article 13 GDPR|Articles 13]] or [[Article 14 GDPR|14 GDPR]], or to existing processing, as in [[Article 15 GDPR|Articles 15]] to [[Article 22 GDPR|22 GDPR]], it must always be provided “in a concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language."
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<div>'''Recital 58:''' Requirements, form and structure of the information</div>
 
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If the personal data processed by a controller do not permit the controller to identify a natural person, the data controller should not be obliged to acquire additional information in order to identify the data subject for the sole purpose of complying with any provision of this Regulation. However, the controller should not refuse to take additional information provided by the data subject in order to support the exercise of his or her rights. Identification should include the digital identification of a data subject, for example through authentication mechanism such as the same credentials, used by the data subject to log-in to the on-line service offered by the data controller.
 
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====Conciseness====
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Controllers should present the information/communication in such a way as to avoid information fatigue. This information should be clearly differentiated from other non-privacy related information, such as contractual provisions or general terms of use.  
<div>'''Recital 59:''' Facilitate the exercise of data subject's rights</div>
 
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Modalities should be provided for facilitating the exercise of the data subject's rights under this Regulation, including mechanisms to request and, if applicable, obtain, free of charge, in particular, access to and rectification or erasure of personal data and the exercise of the right to object. The controller should also provide means for requests to be made electronically, especially where personal data are processed by electronic means. The controller should be obliged to respond to requests from the data subject without undue delay and at the latest within one month and to give reasons where the controller does not intend to comply with any such requests.
 
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The use of a layered privacy statement will provide a data subject with the relevant section of the privacy statement at the appropriate moment instead of providing them with a monolithic notice.
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<div>'''Recital 60:''' Information provision </div>
 
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The principles of fair and transparent processing require that the data subject be informed of the existence of the processing operation and its purposes. The controller should provide the data subject with any further information necessary to ensure fair and transparent processing taking into account the specific circumstances and context in which the personal data are processed. Furthermore, the data subject should be informed of the existence of profiling and the consequences of such profiling. Where the personal data are collected from the data subject, the data subject should also be informed whether he or she is obliged to provide the personal data and of the consequences, where he or she does not provide such data. That information may be provided in combination with standardised icons in order to give in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner, a meaningful overview of the intended processing. Where the icons are presented electronically, they should be machine-readable.
 
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====Transparency====
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A data subject should be able to determine in advance what the scope and consequences of the processing entails and they should not be surprised at a later point about the ways in which their personal data has been used (Recital 39 GDPR).  
<div>'''Recital 64:''' Verification of the data subject's identity</div>
 
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The controller should use all reasonable measures to verify the identity of a data subject who requests access, in particular in the context of online services and online identifiers. A controller should not retain personal data for the sole purpose of being able to react to potential requests.
 
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==Commentary==
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For complex, technical or unexpected data processing, the WP29's position is that, in addition to providing the prescribed information under [[Article 13 GDPR|Articles 13]] and [[Article 14 GDPR|14 GDPR]], controllers should also separately spell out (in unambiguous language) what the most important consequences of the processing will be.<ref>WP29, Guidelines on Transparency under Regulation 2016/679, 11 April 2018, [https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/article29/items/622227/en p. 7].</ref>
  
===(1) Requirements of the information in the GDPR===
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====Intelligibility====
In describing the general requirements of the information to be provided to the user, paragraph 1 refers to Articles 13, 14, 15 to 22 and 34 of the GDPR. Considered together, these provisions exhaust all the cases of communication and information provided by the controller to the data subject.  
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The requirement that information is “intelligible” means that it should be understandable by an average member of the intended audience. An accountable data controller will have knowledge on the people that they collect information about and can use this knowledge to determine what that audience would likely understand.
  
It follows that, no matter whether the information refers to a forthcoming processing, as in Articles 13 or 14, or to an existing one, as in Articles 15 to 22, it must always be provided “in a concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language”.  
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If controllers are uncertain about the level of intelligibility and transparency of the information and effectiveness of user interfaces/ notices/ policies etc., they can test these, for example, through mechanisms such as user panels, readability testing, formal and informal interactions and dialogue with industry groups, consumer advocacy groups and regulatory bodies, amongst other options.
  
====Conciseness====
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====Easily Accessible Form====
Controllers should present the information/communication in order to avoid information fatigue. This information should be clearly differentiated from other non-privacy related information such as contractual provisions or general terms of use.  
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The data subject should not have to seek out the information. It should be immediately apparent where and how information can be accessed. The controller can provide data subjects with information directly, linking them to it, or clearly signpost information as an answer to a natural language question (for example in an online layered privacy statement/ notice, in FAQs, by way of contextual pop-ups which activate when a data subject fills in an online form, in an interactive digital context through a chatbot interface, etc).
  
The use of a layered privacy statement/ notice will enable a data subject to navigate to the particular section of the privacy statement/ notice which they want to immediately access rather than having to scroll through large amounts of text searching for particular issues
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====Clear and Plain Language====
 
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With written information (and where information is delivered orally, or by audio/ audiovisual methods, including for vision-impaired data subjects), best practices for clear communication should be followed. The requirement for clear and plain language means that information should be provided in as simple a manner as possible, avoiding complex sentence and language structures. The information should be concrete and definitive; it should not be phrased in abstract or ambivalent terms or leave room for different interpretations.  
====Transparency====
 
A data subject should be able to determine in advance what the scope and consequences of the processing entails and that they should not be taken by surprise at a later point about the ways in which their personal data has been used (Recital 39).
 
 
 
In particular, for complex, technical or unexpected data processing, WP29’s position is that, as well as providing the prescribed information under Articles 13 and 14, controllers should also separately spell out in unambiguous language what the most important consequences of the processing will be.
 
 
 
====Intelligibility====
 
The requirement that information is “intelligible” means that it should be understood by an average member of the intended audience. An accountable data controller will have knowledge about the people they collect information about and it can use this knowledge to determine what that audience would likely understand.
 
  
If controllers are uncertain about the level of intelligibility and transparency of the information and effectiveness of user interfaces/ notices/ policies etc., they can test these, for example, through mechanisms such as user panels, readability testing, formal and informal interactions and dialogue with industry groups, consumer advocacy groups and regulatory bodies, where appropriate, amongst other things.
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In particular, the purposes of, and legal basis for, processing the personal data should be clear. Language qualifiers such as “may”, “might”, “some”, “often” and “possible” should also be avoided. Where data controllers opt to use vague language, they should be able, in accordance with the principle of accountability, to demonstrate why the use of such language could not be avoided and how it does not undermine the fairness of processing.
  
====Easily accessible form====
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====Forms of the Information====
The data subject should not have to seek out the information; it should be immediately apparent to them where and how this information can be accessed, for example by providing it directly to them, by linking them to it, by clearly signposting it or as an answer to a natural language question (for example in an online layered privacy statement/ notice, in FAQs, by way of contextual pop-ups which activate when a data subject fills in an online form, or in an interactive digital context through a chatbot interface, etc).
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Under Article 12(1) GDPR, the default provision of information to, or communications with, data subjects should be done in writing (also, according to Article 12(7) GDPR, in combination with standardized icons).
  
====Clear and plain language====
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However, the GDPR also allows for other, unspecified “means” including electronic means, to be used. WP29’s position with regard to written electronic means is that where a data controller maintains (or operates, in part or in full, through) a website, WP29 recommends the use of layered privacy statements/notice, which allow website visitors to navigate to particular aspects of the relevant privacy statement that are of most interest to them.<ref>WP29, Guidelines on Transparency under Regulation 2016/679, 11 April 2018, [https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/article29/items/622227/en p. 8].</ref>
With written information (and where written information is delivered orally, or by audio/ audiovisual methods, including for vision-impaired data subjects), best practices for clear writing should be followed. The requirement for clear and plain language means that information should be provided in as simple a manner as possible, avoiding complex sentence and language structures. The information should be concrete and definitive; it should not be phrased in abstract or ambivalent terms or leave room for different interpretations.  
 
  
In particular, the purposes of, and legal basis for, processing the personal data should be clear. Language qualifiers such as “may”, “might”, “some”, “often” and “possible” should also be avoided. Where data controllers opt to use indefinite language, they should be able, in accordance with the principle of accountability, to demonstrate why the use of such language could not be avoided and how it does not undermine the fairness of processing.
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Other electronic means include “just-in-time” contextual pop-up notices, 3D touch or hover-over notices, and privacy dashboards. Non-written electronic means which may be used in addition to a layered privacy statement might include videos and smartphone or IoT voice alerts.
  
====Forms of the information====
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“Other means”, which are not necessarily electronic, might include, for example, cartoons, infographics or flowcharts. Where transparency information is directed at children specifically, controllers should consider what types of measures may be particularly accessible to children (e.g. these might be comics/cartoons, pictograms, animations, etc. amongst other measures).
Under [[Article 12 GDPR#1|Article 12(1)]], the default provision of information to, or communications with, data subjects should be done in writing (also, according to [[Article 12 GDPR#7|Article 12(7)]], in combination with standardised icons).
 
  
However, the GDPR also allows for other, unspecified “means” including electronic means to be used. WP29’s position with regard to written electronic means is that where a data controller maintains (or operates, in part or in full, through) a website, WP29 recommends the use of layered privacy statements/ notices, which allow website visitors to navigate to particular aspects of the relevant privacy statement/ notice that are of most interest to them.
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Article 12(1) GDPR specifically contemplates that information may be provided orally to a data subject on request, provided that their identity is proven by other means. In other words, the means employed should be more than reliance on a mere assertion by the individual that they are a specific named person and the means should enable the controller to verify a data subject’s identity with sufficient certainty.
  
Other electronic means include “just-in-time” contextual pop-up notices, 3D touch or hover-over notices, and privacy dashboards. Non-written electronic means which may be used in addition to a layered privacy statement/ notice might include videos and smartphone or IoT voice alerts.
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===(2) Exercise of Rights===
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The controller should help the data subject exercise their rights . Only a full recognition of their rights makes it possible for the data subject to control their personal data.
  
“Other means”, which are not necessarily electronic, might include, for example, cartoons, infographics or flowcharts. Where transparency information is directed at children specifically, controllers should consider what types of measures may be particularly accessible to children (e.g. these might be comics/ cartoons, pictograms, animations, etc. amongst other measures).
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===(3) Time Limit===
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The controller must act on any request by the data subject under [[Article 15 GDPR|Articles 15]] to [[Article 22 GDPR|22 GDPR]] as soon as possible ("without undue delay") and in any event within one month.
  
[[Article 12 GDPR#1|Article 12(1)]] specifically contemplates that information may be provided orally to a data subject on request, provided that their identity is proven by other means. In other words, the means employed should be more than reliance on a mere assertion by the individual that they are a specific named person and the means should enable the controller to verify a data subject’s identity with sufficient assurance.  
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That period may be extended by two further months where necessary if the requests are complex or numerous such that they cannot be answered within one month. A controller cannot extend the duration simply because inadequate internal organisation prevents them from complying in a timely manner.
  
===(2) Exercise of rights===
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In any case, where a controller is unable to comply within the one month deadline, the controller must inform the data subject within one month of receiving the request of the reasons for the delay.  
The exercise of rights by the data subject is considered as one of the peculiar aspects of the new discipline. Only a full recognition of your rights makes it possible for the data subject to control your personal data. This objective requires a broad protection that the legislator provides by defining a discipline aimed at facilitating the exercise of rights by the user.  
 
  
===(3) Time limit===
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The manner information is provided to the data subject should mirror the manner the data subject made the request, unless otherwise specified by the data subject. For example, an electronic request by the data subject should typically be responded to electronically.
The controller shall provide information on action taken on a request under Articles 15 to 22 to the data subject without undue delay and in any event within one month of receipt of the request. That period may be extended by two further months where necessary, taking into account the complexity and number of the requests. The controller shall inform the data subject of any such extension within one month of receipt of the request, together with the reasons for the delay. Where the data subject makes the request by electronic form means, the information shall be provided by electronic means where possible, unless otherwise requested by the data subject
 
  
===(4) No actions taken by the controller===
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===(4) Failure to Act on the Request===
If the controller does not take action on the request of the data subject, the controller shall inform the data subject without delay and at the latest within one month of receipt of the request of the reasons for not taking action and on the possibility of lodging a complaint with a supervisory authority and seeking a judicial remedy.
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If, for whatever reason, a controller does not act on the data subject's request, they must inform the data subject as soon as possible and at the latest within one month of receiving the request, as well as the reasons why the controller decided to not act on the data subject's request. They must also tell the data subject about their right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority or to seek a judicial remedy.
  
 
===(5) Free of charge===
 
===(5) Free of charge===
Under [[Article 12 GDPR#5|Article 12(5)]], data controllers cannot generally charge data subjects for the provision of information under Articles 13 and 14, or for communications and actions taken under Articles 15 - 22 (on the rights of data subjects) and Article 34 (communication of personal data breaches to data subjects). This aspect of transparency also means that any information provided under the transparency requirements cannot be made conditional upon financial transactions, for example the payment for, or purchase of, services or goods.
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Under Article 12(5) GDPR, controllers may generally not charge data subjects for the provision of information under [[Article 13 GDPR|Articles 13]] and [[Article 14 GDPR|14 GDPR]], or for communications and actions taken under [[Article 15 GDPR|Articles 15]] - [[Article 22 GDPR|22 GDPR]] (on the rights of data subjects) and [[Article 34 GDPR]] (communication of personal data breaches to data subjects). Flowing from the principle of transparency, the provision of such information cannot be made conditional upon financial transactions, for example the payment for services or goods. There are, however, exceptions to the requirement that the exercise of GDPR rights, such as obtaining information, be free of charge.  
  
====Exceptions====
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====(a) Reasonable Fee====
Normally, the exercise of GDPR rights, as well as obtaining information, is free of charge. However, if the requests are manifestly unfounded or excessive, in particular due to their repetitive nature, the data controller may charge a reasonable expense contribution ([[Article 12 GDPR#5|Article 12(5)]]). This is clearly an exception to the rule which, as such, must be interpreted restrictively.
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If information requests are manifestly unfounded or excessive, in particular due to their repetitive nature, the data controller may charge a reasonable fee. This exception to the rule must be interpreted restrictively in order to not infringe upon the data subject's right to information.
  
If the request is not manifestly unfounded or repetitive, the controller cannot charge any fee, regardless of whether it was provided for in the contract terms. GDPR rights are very personal rights and cannot be assigned from the data subject by accepting an electronically signed contract.
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Consequently, provided the request is not manifestly unfounded or repetitive, the controller cannot charge a fee even if a fee was provided for in the contract terms. GDPR rights are personal rights and as such cannot be signed away by the data subject.
  
====Burden of proof====
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====(b) Refuse to Act====
The controller shall bear the burden of demonstrating the manifestly unfounded or excessive character of the request.
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Alternatively, if requests are manifestly unfounded or excessive, the controller can refuse to act on the request.  
  
===(6) Verifying the data subject===
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For both exceptions to the rule that controllers respond to access requests free of charge, the controller shall bear the burden of demonstrating the manifestly unfounded or excessive character of the request.
The identification of the data subject is one of the most delicate aspects of the Regulation. In many cases, in fact, the controller rejects users' requests because of alleged problems related to their identification.
 
  
From a strictly conceptual point of view, the question is simple: all processing of personal data presupposes the existence of a given subject to which rights are obviously assigned. Consequently, the controller is obliged to respect the rights in case of request. The problem arises when the controller has to verify the correspondence between the person exercising the right and the person to whom the data belong. In these cases, it is possible that the applicant disguises his/her identity and pretends to be data subject, with the risk that, in case of acceptance, the data may be communicated to unauthorized persons.  
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===(6) Verifying the Data Subject===
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In practice, controllers often reject user requests because of alleged problems in identifying them and the risk of disclosing personal data to an unauthorised person which, for example, might contribute to identity theft.
  
If the controller has reasonable doubts concerning the identity of a natural person making a request under Articles 15 to 21, additional information may be asked to confirm the identity. In doing so, the controller may use "all reasonable measures" (Recital 64) including contacting them via known contact details, such as a phone number or a postal address.  
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If the controller has reasonable doubts concerning the identity of a natural person making a request under [[Article 15 GDPR|Articles 15]] to [[Article 21 GDPR|21 GDPR]], additional information may be requested to confirm identity. In doing so, the controller may use "''all reasonable measures''" (Recital 64 GDPR), including contacting them via known contact details, such as a phone number or a postal address, to verify their identity.
  
In the context of online services, the authentication of the data subject can be pursued by providing a procedure for certifying the digital identification - for example, by sending a secret code, or a link containing a unique token, to the email address used for the registration.
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In the context of online services, the data subject can be authenticated by, for example, sending a secret code, a link containing a unique token to their email address, or other contact method used for the registration.
  
===(7) Standardised icons===
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===(7) Standardised Icons===
The GDPR provides for visualisation tools (referencing in particular, icons, certification mechanisms, and data protection seals and marks) where appropriate. Recital 5846 indicates that the accessibility of information addressed to the public or to data subjects is especially important in the online environment.
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The GDPR provides for visualisation tools (referencing in particular, icons, certification mechanisms, and data protection seals and marks) where appropriate.  
  
However, the use of icons should not simply replace information necessary for the exercise of a data subject’s rights nor should they be used as a substitute to compliance with the data controller’s obligations under Articles 13 and 14.
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However, the use of icons should not simply replace information necessary for the exercise of a data subject’s rights nor should they be used as a substitute to compliance with the controller’s obligations under [[Article 13 GDPR|Articles 13]] and [[Article 14 GDPR|14 GDPR]].
  
===(8) Code of icons===
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===(8) Code of Icons===
In line with Recital 166 the development of a code of icons should be centred upon an evidence-based approach and in advance of any such standardisation it will be necessary for extensive research to be conducted in conjunction with industry and the wider public as to the efficacy of icons in this context
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The Commission may determine the information to be displayed by icons and the procedures for providing standardised icons. The competence does not include the binding establishment of specific icons. In line with Recital 166 GDPR the development of a code for icons should be centered upon an evidence-based approach. Prior to any such standardisation it will be necessary for research on the efficacy of icons to be conducted.
  
 
==Decisions==
 
==Decisions==
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==References==
 
==References==
<references />→ [https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/article29/item-detail.cfm?item_id=622227 Guidelines on Transparency under Regulation 2016/679 (wp260rev.01)]
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<references />
 
[[Category:GDPR Articles]]
 
[[Category:GDPR Articles]]

Latest revision as of 13:09, 18 August 2021

Article 12: Transparent information, communication and modalities for the exercise of the rights of the data subject
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Chapter 10: Delegated and implementing acts

Legal Text[edit | edit source]

Article 12: Transparent information, communication and modalities for the exercise of the rights of the data subject

1. The controller shall take appropriate measures to provide any information referred to in Articles 13 and 14 and any communication under Articles 15 to 22 and 34 relating to processing to the data subject in a concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language, in particular for any information addressed specifically to a child. The information shall be provided in writing, or by other means, including, where appropriate, by electronic means. When requested by the data subject, the information may be provided orally, provided that the identity of the data subject is proven by other means.

2. The controller shall facilitate the exercise of data subject rights under Articles 15 to 22. In the cases referred to in Article 11(2), the controller shall not refuse to act on the request of the data subject for exercising his or her rights under Articles 15 to 22, unless the controller demonstrates that it is not in a position to identify the data subject.

3. The controller shall provide information on action taken on a request under Articles 15 to 22 to the data subject without undue delay and in any event within one month of receipt of the request. That period may be extended by two further months where necessary, taking into account the complexity and number of the requests. The controller shall inform the data subject of any such extension within one month of receipt of the request, together with the reasons for the delay. Where the data subject makes the request by electronic form means, the information shall be provided by electronic means where possible, unless otherwise requested by the data subject.

4. If the controller does not take action on the request of the data subject, the controller shall inform the data subject without delay and at the latest within one month of receipt of the request of the reasons for not taking action and on the possibility of lodging a complaint with a supervisory authority and seeking a judicial remedy.

5. Information provided under Articles 13 and 14 and any communication and any actions taken under Articles 15 to 22 and 34 shall be provided free of charge. Where requests from a data subject are manifestly unfounded or excessive, in particular because of their repetitive character, the controller may either:

(a) charge a reasonable fee taking into account the administrative costs of providing the information or communication or taking the action requested; or
(b) refuse to act on the request.

The controller shall bear the burden of demonstrating the manifestly unfounded or excessive character of the request.

6. Without prejudice to Article 11, where the controller has reasonable doubts concerning the identity of the natural person making the request referred to in Articles 15 to 21, the controller may request the provision of additional information necessary to confirm the identity of the data subject.

7. The information to be provided to data subjects pursuant to Articles 13 and 14 may be provided in combination with standardised icons in order to give in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner a meaningful overview of the intended processing. Where the icons are presented electronically they shall be machine-readable.

8. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 92 for the purpose of determining the information to be presented by the icons and the procedures for providing standardised icons.

Relevant Recitals[edit | edit source]

Recital 11: Strengthening of Rights and Enforcement
Effective protection of personal data throughout the Union requires the strengthening and setting out in detail of the rights of data subjects and the obligations of those who process and determine the processing of personal data, as well as equivalent powers for monitoring and ensuring compliance with the rules for the protection of personal data and equivalent sanctions for infringements in the Member States.

Recital 39: Principles of Data Processing
Any processing of personal data should be lawful and fair. It should be transparent to natural persons that personal data concerning them are collected, used, consulted or otherwise processed and to what extent the personal data are or will be processed. The principle of transparency requires that any information and communication relating to the processing of those personal data be easily accessible and easy to understand, and that clear and plain language be used. That principle concerns, in particular, information to the data subjects on the identity of the controller and the purposes of the processing and further information to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the natural persons concerned and their right to obtain confirmation and communication of personal data concerning them which are being processed. Natural persons should be made aware of risks, rules, safeguards and rights in relation to the processing of personal data and how to exercise their rights in relation to such processing. In particular, the specific purposes for which personal data are processed should be explicit and legitimate and determined at the time of the collection of the personal data. The personal data should be adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary for the purposes for which they are processed. This requires, in particular, ensuring that the period for which the personal data are stored is limited to a strict minimum. Personal data should be processed only if the purpose of the processing could not reasonably be fulfilled by other means. In order to ensure that the personal data are not kept longer than necessary, time limits should be established by the controller for erasure or for a periodic review. Every reasonable step should be taken to ensure that personal data which are inaccurate are rectified or deleted. Personal data should be processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security and confidentiality of the personal data, including for preventing unauthorised access to or use of personal data and the equipment used for the processing.

Recital 57: Additional Information for Identification
If the personal data processed by a controller do not permit the controller to identify a natural person, the data controller should not be obliged to acquire additional information in order to identify the data subject for the sole purpose of complying with any provision of this Regulation. However, the controller should not refuse to take additional information provided by the data subject in order to support the exercise of his or her rights. Identification should include the digital identification of a data subject, for example through authentication mechanism such as the same credentials, used by the data subject to log-in to the on-line service offered by the data controller.

Recital 58: Modalities for Transparent Information Provision
The principle of transparency requires that any information addressed to the public or to the data subject be concise, easily accessible and easy to understand, and that clear and plain language and, additionally, where appropriate, visualisation be used. Such information could be provided in electronic form, for example, when addressed to the public, through a website. This is of particular relevance in situations where the proliferation of actors and the technological complexity of practice make it difficult for the data subject to know and understand whether, by whom and for what purpose personal data relating to him or her are being collected, such as in the case of online advertising. Given that children merit specific protection, any information and communication, where processing is addressed to a child, should be in such a clear and plain language that the child can easily understand.

Recital 59: Modalities for Facilitating Data Subject Rights
Modalities should be provided for facilitating the exercise of the data subject's rights under this Regulation, including mechanisms to request and, if applicable, obtain, free of charge, in particular, access to and rectification or erasure of personal data and the exercise of the right to object. The controller should also provide means for requests to be made electronically, especially where personal data are processed by electronic means. The controller should be obliged to respond to requests from the data subject without undue delay and at the latest within one month and to give reasons where the controller does not intend to comply with any such requests.

Recital 60: Information Requirements
The principles of fair and transparent processing require that the data subject be informed of the existence of the processing operation and its purposes. The controller should provide the data subject with any further information necessary to ensure fair and transparent processing taking into account the specific circumstances and context in which the personal data are processed. Furthermore, the data subject should be informed of the existence of profiling and the consequences of such profiling. Where the personal data are collected from the data subject, the data subject should also be informed whether he or she is obliged to provide the personal data and of the consequences, where he or she does not provide such data. That information may be provided in combination with standardised icons in order to give in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner, a meaningful overview of the intended processing. Where the icons are presented electronically, they should be machine-readable.

Recital 63: Modalities and Scope of Right of Access
A data subject should have the right of access to personal data which have been collected concerning him or her, and to exercise that right easily and at reasonable intervals, in order to be aware of, and verify, the lawfulness of the processing. This includes the right for data subjects to have access to data concerning their health, for example the data in their medical records containing information such as diagnoses, examination results, assessments by treating physicians and any treatment or interventions provided. Every data subject should therefore have the right to know and obtain communication in particular with regard to the purposes for which the personal data are processed, where possible the period for which the personal data are processed, the recipients of the personal data, the logic involved in any automatic personal data processing and, at least when based on profiling, the consequences of such processing. Where possible, the controller should be able to provide remote access to a secure system which would provide the data subject with direct access to his or her personal data. That right should not adversely affect the rights or freedoms of others, including trade secrets or intellectual property and in particular the copyright protecting the software. However, the result of those considerations should not be a refusal to provide all information to the data subject. Where the controller processes a large quantity of information concerning the data subject, the controller should be able to request that, before the information is delivered, the data subject specify the information or processing activities to which the request relates.

Recital 64: Identity Verification
The controller should use all reasonable measures to verify the identity of a data subject who requests access, in particular in the context of online services and online identifiers. A controller should not retain personal data for the sole purpose of being able to react to potential requests.

Recital 73: Restrictions by Member States
Restrictions concerning specific principles and the rights of information, access to and rectification or erasure of personal data, the right to data portability, the right to object, decisions based on profiling, as well as the communication of a personal data breach to a data subject and certain related obligations of the controllers may be imposed by Union or Member State law, as far as necessary and proportionate in a democratic society to safeguard public security, including the protection of human life especially in response to natural or manmade disasters, the prevention, investigation and prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security, or of breaches of ethics for regulated professions, other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, the keeping of public registers kept for reasons of general public interest, further processing of archived personal data to provide specific information related to the political behaviour under former totalitarian state regimes or the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others, including social protection, public health and humanitarian purposes. Those restrictions should be in accordance with the requirements set out in the Charter and in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Recital 166: Delegated Acts
In order to fulfil the objectives of this Regulation, namely to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons and in particular their right to the protection of personal data and to ensure the free movement of personal data within the Union, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 TFEU should be delegated to the Commission. In particular, delegated acts should be adopted in respect of criteria and requirements for certification mechanisms, information to be presented by standardised icons and procedures for providing such icons. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level. The Commission, when preparing and drawing-up delegated acts, should ensure a simultaneous, timely and appropriate transmission of relevant documents to the European Parliament and to the Council.

Commentary on Article 12[edit | edit source]

(1) Requirements of Information in the GDPR[edit | edit source]

In describing the general requirements of information to be provided to the user, Article 12(1) GDPR refers to Articles 13, 14, 15 to 22 and 34 GDPR. Considered together, these provisions list all communication and information obligations by the controller to the data subject.

It follows that no matter whether the information refers to future processing, as in Articles 13 or 14 GDPR, or to existing processing, as in Articles 15 to 22 GDPR, it must always be provided “in a concise, transparent, intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language."

Conciseness[edit | edit source]

Controllers should present the information/communication in such a way as to avoid information fatigue. This information should be clearly differentiated from other non-privacy related information, such as contractual provisions or general terms of use.

The use of a layered privacy statement will provide a data subject with the relevant section of the privacy statement at the appropriate moment instead of providing them with a monolithic notice.

Transparency[edit | edit source]

A data subject should be able to determine in advance what the scope and consequences of the processing entails and they should not be surprised at a later point about the ways in which their personal data has been used (Recital 39 GDPR).

For complex, technical or unexpected data processing, the WP29's position is that, in addition to providing the prescribed information under Articles 13 and 14 GDPR, controllers should also separately spell out (in unambiguous language) what the most important consequences of the processing will be.[1]

Intelligibility[edit | edit source]

The requirement that information is “intelligible” means that it should be understandable by an average member of the intended audience. An accountable data controller will have knowledge on the people that they collect information about and can use this knowledge to determine what that audience would likely understand.

If controllers are uncertain about the level of intelligibility and transparency of the information and effectiveness of user interfaces/ notices/ policies etc., they can test these, for example, through mechanisms such as user panels, readability testing, formal and informal interactions and dialogue with industry groups, consumer advocacy groups and regulatory bodies, amongst other options.

Easily Accessible Form[edit | edit source]

The data subject should not have to seek out the information. It should be immediately apparent where and how information can be accessed. The controller can provide data subjects with information directly, linking them to it, or clearly signpost information as an answer to a natural language question (for example in an online layered privacy statement/ notice, in FAQs, by way of contextual pop-ups which activate when a data subject fills in an online form, in an interactive digital context through a chatbot interface, etc).

Clear and Plain Language[edit | edit source]

With written information (and where information is delivered orally, or by audio/ audiovisual methods, including for vision-impaired data subjects), best practices for clear communication should be followed. The requirement for clear and plain language means that information should be provided in as simple a manner as possible, avoiding complex sentence and language structures. The information should be concrete and definitive; it should not be phrased in abstract or ambivalent terms or leave room for different interpretations.

In particular, the purposes of, and legal basis for, processing the personal data should be clear. Language qualifiers such as “may”, “might”, “some”, “often” and “possible” should also be avoided. Where data controllers opt to use vague language, they should be able, in accordance with the principle of accountability, to demonstrate why the use of such language could not be avoided and how it does not undermine the fairness of processing.

Forms of the Information[edit | edit source]

Under Article 12(1) GDPR, the default provision of information to, or communications with, data subjects should be done in writing (also, according to Article 12(7) GDPR, in combination with standardized icons).

However, the GDPR also allows for other, unspecified “means” including electronic means, to be used. WP29’s position with regard to written electronic means is that where a data controller maintains (or operates, in part or in full, through) a website, WP29 recommends the use of layered privacy statements/notice, which allow website visitors to navigate to particular aspects of the relevant privacy statement that are of most interest to them.[2]

Other electronic means include “just-in-time” contextual pop-up notices, 3D touch or hover-over notices, and privacy dashboards. Non-written electronic means which may be used in addition to a layered privacy statement might include videos and smartphone or IoT voice alerts.

“Other means”, which are not necessarily electronic, might include, for example, cartoons, infographics or flowcharts. Where transparency information is directed at children specifically, controllers should consider what types of measures may be particularly accessible to children (e.g. these might be comics/cartoons, pictograms, animations, etc. amongst other measures).

Article 12(1) GDPR specifically contemplates that information may be provided orally to a data subject on request, provided that their identity is proven by other means. In other words, the means employed should be more than reliance on a mere assertion by the individual that they are a specific named person and the means should enable the controller to verify a data subject’s identity with sufficient certainty.

(2) Exercise of Rights[edit | edit source]

The controller should help the data subject exercise their rights . Only a full recognition of their rights makes it possible for the data subject to control their personal data.

(3) Time Limit[edit | edit source]

The controller must act on any request by the data subject under Articles 15 to 22 GDPR as soon as possible ("without undue delay") and in any event within one month.

That period may be extended by two further months where necessary if the requests are complex or numerous such that they cannot be answered within one month. A controller cannot extend the duration simply because inadequate internal organisation prevents them from complying in a timely manner.

In any case, where a controller is unable to comply within the one month deadline, the controller must inform the data subject within one month of receiving the request of the reasons for the delay.

The manner information is provided to the data subject should mirror the manner the data subject made the request, unless otherwise specified by the data subject. For example, an electronic request by the data subject should typically be responded to electronically.

(4) Failure to Act on the Request[edit | edit source]

If, for whatever reason, a controller does not act on the data subject's request, they must inform the data subject as soon as possible and at the latest within one month of receiving the request, as well as the reasons why the controller decided to not act on the data subject's request. They must also tell the data subject about their right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority or to seek a judicial remedy.

(5) Free of charge[edit | edit source]

Under Article 12(5) GDPR, controllers may generally not charge data subjects for the provision of information under Articles 13 and 14 GDPR, or for communications and actions taken under Articles 15 - 22 GDPR (on the rights of data subjects) and Article 34 GDPR (communication of personal data breaches to data subjects). Flowing from the principle of transparency, the provision of such information cannot be made conditional upon financial transactions, for example the payment for services or goods. There are, however, exceptions to the requirement that the exercise of GDPR rights, such as obtaining information, be free of charge.

(a) Reasonable Fee[edit | edit source]

If information requests are manifestly unfounded or excessive, in particular due to their repetitive nature, the data controller may charge a reasonable fee. This exception to the rule must be interpreted restrictively in order to not infringe upon the data subject's right to information.

Consequently, provided the request is not manifestly unfounded or repetitive, the controller cannot charge a fee even if a fee was provided for in the contract terms. GDPR rights are personal rights and as such cannot be signed away by the data subject.

(b) Refuse to Act[edit | edit source]

Alternatively, if requests are manifestly unfounded or excessive, the controller can refuse to act on the request.

For both exceptions to the rule that controllers respond to access requests free of charge, the controller shall bear the burden of demonstrating the manifestly unfounded or excessive character of the request.

(6) Verifying the Data Subject[edit | edit source]

In practice, controllers often reject user requests because of alleged problems in identifying them and the risk of disclosing personal data to an unauthorised person which, for example, might contribute to identity theft.

If the controller has reasonable doubts concerning the identity of a natural person making a request under Articles 15 to 21 GDPR, additional information may be requested to confirm identity. In doing so, the controller may use "all reasonable measures" (Recital 64 GDPR), including contacting them via known contact details, such as a phone number or a postal address, to verify their identity.

In the context of online services, the data subject can be authenticated by, for example, sending a secret code, a link containing a unique token to their email address, or other contact method used for the registration.

(7) Standardised Icons[edit | edit source]

The GDPR provides for visualisation tools (referencing in particular, icons, certification mechanisms, and data protection seals and marks) where appropriate.

However, the use of icons should not simply replace information necessary for the exercise of a data subject’s rights nor should they be used as a substitute to compliance with the controller’s obligations under Articles 13 and 14 GDPR.

(8) Code of Icons[edit | edit source]

The Commission may determine the information to be displayed by icons and the procedures for providing standardised icons. The competence does not include the binding establishment of specific icons. In line with Recital 166 GDPR the development of a code for icons should be centered upon an evidence-based approach. Prior to any such standardisation it will be necessary for research on the efficacy of icons to be conducted.

Decisions[edit | edit source]

→ You can find all related decisions in Category:Article 12 GDPR

References[edit | edit source]

  1. WP29, Guidelines on Transparency under Regulation 2016/679, 11 April 2018, p. 7.
  2. WP29, Guidelines on Transparency under Regulation 2016/679, 11 April 2018, p. 8.